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艺术炼金术士

2016-04-10 旧少年






周日美术分享来自优秀的
“知了”

^^





Sigmar Polke(西格马·波尔克,1941年2月13日- 2010年6月10日)是二十世纪最贪婪的实验艺术家之一,德国画家和摄影师。1953年波尔克全家由东德逃往西德杜塞多夫定居,12岁的波尔克第一次见识到西德经济奇迹所带来的冲击与矛盾,这个世界全然倒转的印象深深印刻在波尔克的脑海里,“消费”与“媒体”等出现在自由国度的主题也于此后成为他的创作核心。



西格马·波尔克和格哈德·里希特,1966年。


西格马·波尔克
在德国西部的埃菲尔山脉,1993.

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1965年完成玻璃彩绘的专业训练后,波尔克往艺术道路迈进,61年-67年就读于杜塞多夫艺术学院。


Plastik-Wannen ,1964, Oil no canvas ,94 x 120 cm. 


The Palm Painting (Das Palmen-Bild), 1964,Dispersion paint on patterned fabric,91.5 × 75.4 cm.

1963年波尔克与费雪(Konrad Fischer)、里希特、佛斯泰尔(Wolf Vostell)等人在杜塞道夫高举“资本注意者的写实注意”(Kapitalistischen Realismus)新运动,组织画展,德国的普普艺术诞生。


Lovers II,1965 ,Oil and enamel on canvas, 190 x 140 cm.

年轻的艺术家们从资本主义的自由国度里敏锐感觉到消费生活在社会的影响,这个新的艺术运动所标版的是反艺术形式化,挪用商业广告中的速写图像移植到创作中,刻意将粗俗工艺与媚世品味置于画面背景,显示整个社会被消费行为的控制,再将著名艺术家作品转嫁其创作中。

波尔克在堵塞多夫画展中,取材报纸与杂志食品图片,画面上充斥资本主义国度的消费广告与生活形态,对战后德国分裂,贫富悬殊嘲讽。笔法粗犷,但却是他精心设计的拙略表象,奠定德国新绘画的诞生。


 Girlfriends ,1965/66.

《女性朋友们》就像是一张被放大数百倍的相片,波尔克的手工技术与科技产生的图像互为对比。


Bunnies ,1966 ,Oil on canvas ,150 x 100 cm.


Rasterbild mit Palmen, 1966 ,Oil on canvas ,130 x 110 cm.


Weekend House,1966,screenprint on paper,23 × 33 inches.


Girl Friends,1967,offset lithograph on paper,18× 24 inches.


Polke as Astronaut,1968.




. . . Höhere Wesen befehlen, 1968,4 drawings: pencil and watercolor on paper 14 offset lithographs,21 × 14.6 cm.




. . . Höhere Wesen befehlen, 1968,4 drawings: pencil and watercolor on paper 14 offset lithographs,21 × 14.6 cm.


Untitled, Maschine Zum Drehen...., circa. late 1960s,Blue ballpoint pen on paper,21 × 14.6 cm.


Untitled, Composition, circa. late 1960s,Green and black felt-tip pen on paper,29.5 × 21.3 cm.


Untitled, De Abstand zu den Dingen, circa. late 1960s,Light blie and black felt tip pen on paper.


Untitled (from the ‘Meissenkanne’ Series), 1968,Unique gelatin silver print ,Four parts, each:  12.5 x 18 cm.

1963-1969年,波尔克创造新的绘画风格,将旧照片不断放大,图片上网点突出,犹如廉价的通俗画报,用毫无规则的排列掩盖原来的图像;1971年,他在廉价编织物上堆叠颜色与图案,刻意幼稚化、突兀化。


Wolldeckenbild mit kleinenweissen Quadraten ,1968 ,Dispersion on wool blanket, 150 x 125 cm.


Modern Art (Moderne Kunst), 1968,Acrylic and lacquer on canvas,150 × 125 cm.

波尔克用名为“现代艺术”的作品揶揄构成主义和非正式风格的抽象和风行德国的“德国波普”的艺术形式。


Weekend House,Graphics of Capitalist Realism,1968,screenprint on paper,23 × 33 inches.


Reiherbild II,1968, Dispersion on flannel ,190 x 150 cm.


Höhere Wesen befahlen: rechte obere Ecke schwarz malen!, 1969,Lacquer paint on canvas,150 × 126 cm.


Dr. Berlin, 1969-1974,Dispersion paint, gouache, and spray paint on canvas,150 × 120 cm.

70年代开始,波尔克极为热衷于当代的社会政治议题与历史题材的交互暗喻,如法国大革命与德国纳粹主义,过度理性成为恐怖屠杀的种子。波尔克迷恋上摄影,他到阿富汗感受另一端世界的自由,当年的阿富汗风行由欧美传入的嬉皮风格,这次经验刺激了波尔克对现实世界的观点与观察角度。他用相机记录,在暗房研究相纸与药水,偶然的错误,化学药剂的泼洒给他新灵感,他的画面多了泼洒、涂抹等技术。


Untitled, Karin, circa. 1970,Unique silver gelatin print, hand-colored,12.7 × 17.8 cm.


Untitled, Chimney Sweep, circa. 1970-1972,Brown felt-tip pen on paper,21 × 14.6 cm.


Portrait of David Lamelas (Obelisk),1971, Dispersion and spray enamel on canvas,130 x 150 cm.


Zwei Köpfe, 1971/73 ,Oil and cellulose on canvas, 130 x 110 cm.


School Print,1972,screenprint, embossing on paper with screenprint on vellum collaged to reverse,19.5 × 25.5 inches.

The Washing of the Rulers,1972-1999,black and white photographs,each of 7 11.9375 × 15.875 inches.


Untitled (Männer am Felsen, übermalt), 1972,Silver gelatin print, painted over,24 × 18 cm.


I'll Take Care of That, Jess, 1972 ,Oil on felt, 315 x 285 cm.


Untitled (I Love You),1973,Work on paper,99 × 69 cm.


Figure with Hand (I Am Made Dizzy by a Carpet of Rose-Petals…),1973,Lithograph on paper, 62 x 45 cm.


Hallo Shiva,1974,Lithograph on paper, 20 x 43cm.


Affen ,1974, Dispersion and spray enamel on canvas ,180 x 150 cm .


Skeleton, 1974 ,Dispersion on fabric ,196 x 183 cm.


Untitled (Quetta, Pakistant),, 1974-1978,Gelatin silver print with applied color,56.9 × 85.9 cm.


Untitled, Dalmatian Dogs, 1975,Unique silver gelatin print,17.8 × 24.1 cm.


Untitled, 1975,Gelatin silver print,88.6 × 81.7 cm.


Pille, 1976,Gouache, metallic, enamel, and acrylic paints on paper and canvas,207 × 295 cm.


Can you always believe your eyes?, 1976,Gouache, enamel and acrylic paints, tobacco, zinc sulfide and cadmium oxide on paper and canvas,207 × 295 cm.


Kein Titel, 1978.


Untitled (Drehung), 1979.

80年代,波尔克开始排斥传统原料,不用油画布,用封蜡、酒精等,涂满树脂的染布再铺满各种剂料,整个画面变的半透明,温度、湿度和化学物质相互反应,又产生新的变化。“他也是一个非常难以接近与掌握的人,看似容易却极其复杂。”在他的大型展览开幕,他一句话也不愿意开口,但他表现的又不是害羞。波尔克的作品不能仅仅从画面上的图像来解读,他以材料与手法创造出新的观赏方式,有人称他是艺术界的炼金师。


Burda, 1979/82, Dispersion on fabric 8 panels, Overall size: 180 x 305 cm.


Paganini, 1982 ,Dispersion on canvas ,200 x 450 cm.


Treppenhaus ,1982 ,Dispersion on fabric ,200 x 450 cm.


Hannibal with his Armoured Elephants,1982, Lacquer on canvas, 260 x 200 cm .


The Copyist, 1982, Lacquer on canvas ,260 x 200 cm .


Seit Benzin - Und Heizölpreise Fallen, Wundert Mich Nichts Mehr ,1982 ,Dispersion on fabric ,150 x 180 cm .


Untitled (Mönchengladbach 1983),Overpainted offset lithography on cardboard,65 × 92 cm.


Untitled, 1983,Gouache, India ink on paper,100 × 70 cm.


Composition, 1983,Mixed media on paper,69 × 98 cm.


Untitled, 1983.


Untitled,1984,offset lithograph, paint on paper,25.5 × 36.25 inches.


Watchtower (Hochsitz), 1984,Synthetic polymer paints and dry pigment on patterned fabric,300 × 224.8 cm.


Untitled, 1985,70 × 99.5 cm.


Untitled, 1986,Dispersion paint, tweed on Persian lamb,300 × 500 cm.


Schüttbild Blau/Grün, 1986,Acrylic on cardboard,100 × 75 cm.


Farbprobe (Colour Study), 1986,Oil and gouache on canvas,50 × 40 cm.

1986年,波尔克称为威尼斯双年展德国国家馆艺术家,展出一鸣惊人并获得金狮奖最佳国家馆。90年代,波尔克持续在创作时寻找不同的新发现。


Untitled,1987,screenprint, lacquer on paper, 39.25 × 27.5inches.


Untitled (Optimierung), 1987.


Transparent Nr. 10, 1988,Acrylic, artificial lacquer and violet pigment on polyester fabric, wood frame,110 × 130 cm.


"Neue Schleifen", 1988,Enamel, dispersion on fabric,300 x 225 cm.


"Transparent Nr. 4", 1988,Acrylic on fabric,110 x 130 cm.


Laterna Magica, 1988-1996, artificial resin, lacquer, paint on transparent polyester fabric,

《神奇灯笼》1988-96,被视为是波尔克的代表作之一,由多幅画作组合而成,排列如同一扇一扇的窗户,图像取材于十七世纪以法文出版的炼金术书Mutus Liber。


Clouds (Wolken), 1989,Mixed media on canvas,301.6 × 400.1 cm.


Samson and Delilah from Childstar,1989,screenprint, offset lithograph on paper,22.75 × 29.875 × inches.


Untitled, 1990,Dispersion and gouache on paper,199.1 × 149.9 cm.


"Untitled", 1990,Silver nitrate, silver bromide, silver sulfate, dammar varnish on linen,200 x 190 cm.


Mrs. Autumn and Her Two Daughters,1991,artificial resin, acrylic on synthetic fabric,118 × 196.75 × 1.625 inches.


Ohne Titel, 1992,10 cibachrome prints,61 × 50.8 cm.


Cloud Paintings, 1992-2009,Four panels (painting and resin on silk canvas), meteorite,300 × 500 cm.


Untitled, 1993,Mischfarben auf Stoff,90 × 70 cm.


Ohne Titel, 1993,Acrylic on printed fabric,144.1 × 120.7 cm.


Fensterfront, 1994,Synthetic resin and lacquer on polyester,300 × 500 cm.


"The House of Mondrian", 1994,Dispersion on fabric,105 x 140 cm.


The Third Position,1995,screenprint on paper,21.5 × 29.5inches.


Degenerate Art,1995,offset lithograph on paper,28.75 × 38.25 × 2.25 inches.


S. Tastes the Peaches from H.1996,Granolithograph, embossing on paper,23.25 × 30.37 inches.


Untitled, 1996,Acrylic, artificial lacquer on fabric,79 × 65 cm.


Uranium,1996,color photograph,20.25 × 23  inches.


Transit II,1996-98,offset lithograph on paper,24.75 × 35.375inches.


Filmvorführung, 1998,Seriegraphie,50 × 70 cm,Edition 20/70.


Office Party,1998,screenprint on paper,27 × 19.5 inches.


Fixing the Spot,1998,screenprint on paper,19.5 × 27.5 × inches.


Hallucination,1998,screenprint on paper,27 × 19.5 inches.


Freestyle Practice,1998,screenprint on paper,19.5 × 27.5 inches.


"Untitled", 1998,Mixed media on paper,150 x 200 cm.


"Untitled", 1998-99,Mixed media,100 x 70 cm.


"Untitled", 1998- 99,Mixed media,101 x 68 cm.


We Had to Act,1999,screenprint on paper,17.25 × 12  inches.


Bikini-Frauen, 1999, acrylic and dispersion on printed fabric, 126.5 × 156.2cm.


Eisberg, 2000,Serigraph on and behind exposed reproduction-film,68 × 146 cm.


S.H. - or the love for the material,2000,screenprint on fabric,40 × 29 × 1.5 inches.


Minor,2000,screenprint on paper,23 × 30  inches.


"Untitled", 2002,Mixed media,100 x 70 cm.


"Sauberes Auto, Gute Laune" (Clean Car, High Spirits), 2002,Silkscreen on fabric on canvas,119.5 × 90 cm.


Lila gift,2002,offset lithograph, screenprint on paper,27 × 19 inches.


Cash laughs,2002,offset lithograph, screenprint on paper,27.5 × 19 inches.


SH - or when the points Count?,2002,acrylic, screenprint on fabric,37.25 × 29.3125 × 1.25 inches.


The Artwork this Week,2002,offset lithograph, collage on paper, 23.5 × 31.5  inches.


Untitled (Triptych),2002,Polyester resin and acrylic paint on fabric,each 400 x 300 cm.


Untitled (Square 2),2003,Gold paint, oil paint and acrylic paint on canvas,200 x 190  cm.


"Circus Figures", 2005,Mixed media on fabric,300 x 500 cm.


"Untitled (Lens Painting)", 2008,mixed media on fabric,100 x 70 cm.


Untitled (Lens Painting), 2008,mixed media on fabric,100 x 80 cm.


Dannecker´s Housegekko, 2009,Suite of 4 Serigaph/ Lithographs on flocked , embossed Paper ( Gecko-Scin imitation),69 × 100 cm.


Dannecker's Housegecko 1-4, 2009,Part of a set of 4 works, silkscreen/ offset lithography on flocked paper with lizard skin embossing,68.5 × 99 cm,Edition of 40.


虽然各地的藏家与美术馆争相收购其作品,波尔克却极为重视隐私, 有时候让人以为他总是将交流的门关上。即使人们习惯将波尔克的创作归类为由美国传入德国的普普艺术的派别,但是艺术家拒绝这种轻易的对号入座。


2007年准备威尼斯双年展作品时,波尔克破例开放了他的画室让记者访问,一向对访谈或摄影敬而远之的艺术家谈了他的创作理念,他曾解释画面中的形象于他而言并非是最重要的,人类的行为在任何过程中所产生的欲想才是他想要表现的主题。有些作品他刻意以笨拙的方式处理,好像是犯罪的快感,观众一方面会害怕但是一方面又会想要去接近看个仔细。












- 20160410  No.791 -

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