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在禁止宗教信仰的朝鲜,一所教会大学如何生存?

2017-06-04 言回恶评 言回恶评

平壤科技大学的学生,2011年。学校的教师是基督徒志愿者,其中很多是美国人。David Guttenfelder/Associated Press

SEOUL, South Korea — Set on 250 sprawling acres in North Korea’s capital, the Pyongyang University of Science and Technology abides by the cult of the Kim family.

韩国首尔——平壤科技大学位于朝鲜首都,占地250英亩(约合100公顷),这里处处可见对金氏家族的崇拜。

Atop its main building, large red characters praise “General Kim Jong-un,” the country’s provocative young leader. At the front of lecture halls hang smiling portraits of his father and grandfather, who led the nation before him.

在其主楼的顶部,有大大的红字颂扬“金正恩将军”,即该国爱挑衅的年轻领袖。在讲堂的前面,挂着他父亲和祖父面带微笑的肖像,在金正恩之前,朝鲜由他们领导。

Yet the school is different in one striking way. In a country that bans religion, it is run by evangelical Christians.

然而,这所学校有一个令人瞩目的独特之处:在一个禁止宗教信仰的国家里,这所学校是由福音派基督徒管理的。

Founded seven years ago by a South Korea-born American, the school has thrived because of a deal with the leadership. It provides children of the North Korean elite with an education they cannot get elsewhere — computer science, agriculture, international finance and management, all conducted in English by an international faculty. Its teachers, half of them American, are forbidden to preach.

该校是七年前由一位在韩国出生的美国人创办的,它的繁荣得益于和朝鲜领导层的一个交易。它向朝鲜权贵阶层的孩子提供了在别处无法获得的计算机科学、农业、国际金融和管理方面的教育,所有这些课程都由国际教师用英语教学。该校的教师有一半是美国人,所有教师都不得布道。

But the school may offer the North Korean government something else as well: leverage. Since last month the government has arrested two of the school’s volunteers, both American citizens.

但学校可能也向朝鲜政府提供一些其他东西:筹码。自上个月以来,朝鲜政府已经逮捕了该校的两名美国籍志愿者。

While the university’s chancellor, Park Chan-mo, said the arrests were not related to the teachers’ work at the school, the men were accused of “hostile acts,” a charge that is often used against people accused of spying or proselytizing.

该校校长朴赞谟(Park Chan-mo)表示,这两次逮捕行动与老师在学校的工作无关,被捕的人被指控有“敌对行为”,这种指控常用于有间谍行为或传教布道者。

That effectively makes them bargaining chips in the high-stakes conflict between Pyongyang and Washington. As Mr. Kim pursues a destabilizing nuclear weapons program and the Trump administration warns that the time for “strategic patience” is over, the school gives the regime access to a rare commodity in their country: American citizens.

这些人实际上成了平壤在与华盛顿的高风险冲突中讨价还价的筹码。就在金正恩推进破坏稳定的核武器计划,特朗普行政当局警告说保持“战略耐心”的阶段已经结束之际,由于该学校的存在,朝鲜政权获得了一种境内罕见的商品:美国公民。

The volunteers’ arrests have also cast a light on the school and the ways in which critics say it has, perhaps inadvertently, aided the regime.

志愿者被逮捕的事情把人们的注意力吸引到了这所学校,以及批评者的说法上:也许是在无意之中,它帮助了朝鲜政权。

Some of those critics say the school is training the future elite of a dictatorial regime that abuses human rights and threatens its neighbors with nuclear weapons. Right-wing activists in South Korea accuse the school of educating future hackers.

其中一些批评者说,这所学校正在为一个侵犯人权、对邻国进行核威胁的独裁政权培训未来精英。韩国的右派活动人士指责这所学校在培养未来的黑客。

The school “cannot operate in North Korea without making compromises to the regime — either in money or information — and I am uncomfortable with the extent of such a compromise,” said Suki Kim, who taught English at the university in 2011 as an journalist working undercover. She later described her experience in the book “Without You, There Is No Us.”

这个学校“如果没有向朝鲜政权妥协,无论是在资金还是信息方面,它是无法在该国做任何事情的——而且我对这种妥协的程度感到不安”,金素姬(Suki Kim)说道。她2011年在这所大学教英语,其实是一名卧底记者,后来她在《没有您,就没有我们》(Without You, There Is No Us.)中描述了这段经历。

Many of those compromises are apparent on campus.

那些妥协有些在校园里就很明显。

Students march to the cafeteria singing songs swearing loyalty to Mr. Kim. Course materials have to be approved by the North Korean authorities, who have their own staff members installed on campus. Faculty members must have “guides” with them when they venture off campus.

学生在前往食堂的路上唱着向金正恩效忠的歌曲。课程材料必须经朝鲜当局批准,政府在校内安排了自己的员工。教师要离开校园时,必须有“向导”跟着。

While the foreign faculty has unfiltered access to the internet, most students do not. Teachers have to watch what they say — students are required to report any subversive comments.

虽然外国教师可以不受限制地访问互联网,但大多数学生都不行。教师必须注意他们说了什么——学生需要汇报任何颠覆性言论。

该校校长朴赞谟2012年在首尔的照片。他说,近期两名美国志愿者被捕的案子与学校无关,该校并没有遭到调查。Lee Jae-Won/Reuters

One American professor was deported for trying to give a student a Bible.

一位美国教授试图给学生一本圣经,结果被驱逐出境。

An obelisk at the university, erected by the North Korean authorities and dedicated to Mr. Kim’s grandfather and father, has drawn scorn from outside observers.

朝鲜当局在校园里修建了一座方尖碑,用来纪念金正恩的祖父和父亲,遭到了外界观察家的嘲笑。

“Korean churches have ended up building a temple of idol worship there,” said the Rev. Lee Ho, the leader of the anti-Communist Holy Korea Network.

反共产主义的圣韩网(Holy Korea Network)领导人李浩(Lee Ho,音)牧师说:“搞了半天,韩国教会在这里建了一个崇拜偶像的神庙。”

The university said the monument and other state propaganda were “obligatory,” and “normal” elements of all schools and other official establishments in North Korea.

该大学说,在朝鲜所有学校和其他官方机构,纪念碑和其他宣传做法都是“强制性的”、“正常的”元素。

For the staff of about 90 foreign volunteers from a dozen or so countries, teaching at the university is a chance to gain a foothold in an atheistic country by befriending future North Korean leaders and teaching them an international mind-set.

校内有来自十几个国家的大约90名外国志愿者,对于他们而言,在这所大学的教学是一个机会:通过与未来的朝鲜领导人交好,并教会他们国际心态,从而在这个无神论国家得以立足。

The volunteers mingle and eat with the 500 or so handpicked students, who live on the campus. Together with their families, the staff members constitute the single largest foreign community in North Korea.

校内住有500名左右精心挑选的学生,志愿者与他们交往、一起吃饭。这些工作人员和家属构成了朝鲜最大的外国人社区。

The teachers, many of whom are Korean-American missionaries, are allowed to practice their faith among themselves. But the one inviolable rule is that they are not allowed to proselytize.

老师中有很多是都美国韩裔传教士,他们自己可以遵行信仰。但一个不可侵犯的规则就是,他们不可以劝人改变信仰。

“We want to teach the North Koreans how to catch fish, rather than giving them fish,” said Mr. Park, also a Korean-American and a former president of South Korea’s prestigious Pohang University of Science and Technology. “This will help narrow the economic gap between the two Koreas and the cost of the eventual reunification.”

朴赞谟也是韩裔美国人,曾是韩国著名的浦项科技大学(Pohang University of Science and Technology)的校长,他说:“授人以鱼,不如授之以渔。这将有助于缩小朝韩的经济差距,减小最终统一的代价。”

Thae Yong-ho, a North Korean diplomat who defected to the South last year, said the university was popular among the children of the elite and taught them market principles in a country desperate to modernize its economy. Mr. Thae also dismissed the allegation that the school was training future hackers.

去年叛逃到韩国的朝鲜外交官太永浩(Thae Yong-ho)说,这所大学在权贵阶层的孩子中很受欢迎,朝鲜正在大力推动本国经济现代化,这所学校教会他们市场原则。太永浩驳斥了该学校正在培养未来黑客的传言。

And the university continues to grow, with plans to add a new medical school to the campus in southern Pyongyang.

该校还在继续扩大规模,已经计划在平壤南部的校园增设一个新的医学院。

Despite being in the spotlight, the school is trying to play down the significance of the volunteers’ arrests.

尽管处在聚光灯下,该校正试图淡化志愿者被捕的严重性。

One of the detainees, Kim Sang-duk, an accounting teacher who is also known as Tony Kim, had frequently visited the northeast, where he distributed humanitarian aid to children’s homes and recently delivered 20,000 blankets to flood victims, school officials said.

其中一名被捕的志愿者名叫金盛德(Kim Sang-duk,也叫托尼·金[Tony Kim]),是会计老师,经常前往朝鲜的东北部,向那里的儿童之家分发人道主义救援物资,最近还向洪水灾民发放了2万张毯子。

The other, Kim Hak-song, a Christian pastor, supervised an experimental farm on campus, visiting for a month at a time from China, where he worked as a missionary for a Los Angeles church, according to school officials and the church’s website.

另一位是基督教牧师金学松(Kim Hak-song),他在校园内管理着一个实验农场。据学校官员和洛杉矶一个教会的网站说,他每个月去一趟中国,在那里以该教会传教士的身份工作。

2014年一个视频的截图。大楼上的标语在颂扬“金正恩将军”。Associated Press Television News

Both were detained as they were trying to leave the country. The government has provided no further details on their cases, including whether they are linked.

两人都在试图离开朝鲜的时候遭到了羁押。朝鲜政府没有提供进一步细节,包括这两个案子之间是否有联系。

“We were told that their detentions had nothing to do with what they did at the school and that otherwise they would have been arrested on the school ground,” Mr. Park said during an interview in Seoul, the South Korean capital. “We are praying for them.”

朴赞谟在韩国首尔接受采访时表示:“我们被告知,他们的案子与他们在学校的工作没有任何关系,否则他们会在学校里被捕。我们在为他们祷告。”

The school has reminded its faculty of local rules, but otherwise life there continues in a “perfectly normal manner,” the school said in a statement for this article. Several volunteers from the school have left North Korea in recent days, as planned and without incident, it said.

学校在就本文的一篇声明中说,该校已经提醒过教员要遵守当地规则,但其他生活仍然可以“以完全正常的方式”进行。声明还表示,近日已经有几名志愿者按照原计划离开了朝鲜,没出任何问题。

The university also says it takes care not to violate United Nations sanctions.

该大学还表示,它也很注意不要违反联合国的制裁规定。

“We are in regular dialogue with officials in the U.S. and other administrations on this point, including sharing details of our curriculum,” the statement said.

声明中说:“我们正在与美国官员和其他主管部门就此事进行定期对话,包括分享我们的课程细节。”

When the university’s founder, Kim Chin-kyung, who is also known as James Kim, visits South Korean churches to raise money, he asks congregants to “pay a price” for reunification and for their fellow Koreans suffering in the North, an appeal that resonates with many Christians in the South.

当该大学的创始人金镇庆(Chin-kyung Kim,也称为詹姆斯·金[James Kim])到韩国的教会筹集资金时,要求会众为了朝韩统一,为了他们在北方受苦的同胞而“出钱”,这种呼吁引发了很多韩国基督徒的共鸣。

He argues that reconciliation is the only way to achieve reunification of the divided Korea, and that Christian love can help nurture it.

他认为和解是实现朝韩统一的唯一途径,基督教之爱有助于培养和解的态度。

“I am not a capitalist, I am not a Communist, I am a love-ist,” he likes to say.

他喜欢说:“我不是资本家,我不是共产党人,我是主张爱的人。”

Whether or not that works, the school has surely opened the minds of some students a bit simply by allowing them contact with foreigners.

无论是否有效,仅仅是让学生与外国人接触,该校必然开启了一些学生的心智。

Will Scott, an American computer scientist who taught there from 2013 to 2015, said some of his students admitted to “having nightmares” when they first met teachers from the United States, a country they had learned to demonize from childhood.

美国计算机科学家威尔·斯科特(Will Scott)2013年至2015年间曾在那里教书,他说,一些学生承认,最初遇到美国老师的时候“会做噩梦”,因为他们从小就学会妖魔化美国。

But the students were eventually able to channel their hatred toward the American government and came to accept the individuals they met there.

但学生们最终可以引导自己对美国政府的愤怒情绪,开始接受他们在那里遇到的个体。

“Many of the students were at the university more for the chance to get to interact with foreigners than for the specific major they were in,” Mr. Scott wrote in a question-and-answer session on Reddit.

“相比于学习特定专业,这所大学的许多学生来这里更多是为了有机会和外国人交流,”斯科特在Reddit上的一个问答帖子中写道

But the government tries to reinforce loyalty, requiring the students to take a class on the state ideology of juche, or self-reliance, every Saturday.

但政府竭力强化忠诚意识,要求学生每周六要上一门有关“主体”这一国家意识形态的课程。

When Chancellor Park complained that the class would not give students enough time to do their homework, he said, a North Korean administrator had a pointed retort.

朴赞谟校长表示,当他抗议这门课让学生没有足够的时间做作业时,一名朝鲜行政官予以了尖锐的反驳。

“Mr. Chancellor,” he said, “you yourself go to church every week, don’t you?”

“校长先生,”他说,“你自己每周也去教堂,对吗?”

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