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毛泽东那代人为改革开放攒下了什么家底儿?

齐 彪 万象文荟 2022-04-13

摘 要

毛泽东是领导中国人民彻底改变自己命运和国家面貌的一代伟人。改革开放是邓小平这代共产党人开创的,也是在毛泽东那代共产党人奠定的基础上开创的。习近平总书记在毛泽东诞辰120周年讲话进一步指出:“毛泽东思想教育了几代中国共产党人,它培养的大批骨干,不仅在新民主主义革命、社会主义革命、社会主义建设时期发挥了重要作用,也为新的历史时期开创和建设中国特色社会主义发挥了重要作用。”


毛泽东是领导中国人民彻底改变自己命运和国家面貌的一代伟人。改革开放是邓小平这代共产党人开创的,也是在毛泽东那代共产党人奠定的基础上开创的。毛泽东那代人到底为改革开放攒下了哪些家底儿?经过长期的历史沉淀,有必要以更为宽广的视野进行更为深入的理性剖析和追念。

一是创建了一个工人阶级先进政党并始终保持其先进性、纯洁性,为改革开放准备了坚强领导力量。

毛泽东是中国共产党的主要缔造者。以毛泽东同志为代表的中国共产党人,创造性地解决了在中国这种特殊的社会历史条件下建设马克思主义政党的一系列重大问题,把党建设成为用科学理论和革命精神武装起来的、同人民群众有着血肉联系的、思想上政治上组织上完全巩固的马克思主义政党。

在中国山沟沟里锻造出这样的工人阶级先锋队,是世界政治史上的奇迹。这支队伍在进城执政后没有像李自成、太平军那样垮下来,没有变质,没有成为利益集团,没有成为像西方政党那样的松散组织。

尽管党的领导出现过错误,但党始终保持着原有初心、本质和优良传统作风。这是毛泽东那代人最宝贵的贡献。也正是这样,这个党才有资格继续领导着改革开放及中国社会主义现代化进程。

在一个十几亿人口的社会主义大国进行持续时间长达40年的改革开放,而且还将持续下去,只有中国共产党这样先进、坚强的马克思主义执政党能够带领人民创造这样史无前例的壮举。

二是建立新中国并始终维护国家统一和民族团结,为一切社会进步及改革开放提供了根本政治前提。

国家的统一,人民的团结,国内各民族的团结,这是我们的事业必定要胜利的基本保证。毛泽东是中华人民共和国的主要缔造者。邓小平曾经指出:“没有毛主席,至少我们中国人民还要在黑暗中摸索更长的时间。”

   

       

别留念昨天了,把握好今天吧。(Will Rogers) 170. If you are not brave enough, no one will back you up. 你不勇敢,没人替你坚强。171. If you don't build your dream, someone will hire you to build theirs. 如果你没有梦想,那么你只能为别人的梦想打工。172. Beauty is all around, if you just open your heart to see. 只要你给自己机会,你会发现你的世界可以很美丽。173. The difference in winning and losing is most often...not quitting. 赢与输的差别通常是--不放弃。(华特·迪士尼) 174. I am ordinary yet unique. 我很平凡,但我独一无二。175. I like people who make me laugh in spite of myself. 我喜欢那些让我笑起来的人,就算是我不想笑的时候。176. Image a new story for your life and start living it. 为你的生命想一个全新剧本,并去倾情出演吧!177. I'd rather be a happy fool than a sad sage. 做个悲伤的智者,不如做个开心的傻子。178. The future belongs to those who believe in the beauty of their dreams. 未来属于那些相信梦想之美的人。(埃莉诺·罗斯福) 179. Even if you get no applause, you should accept a curtain call gracefully and appreciate your own efforts. 即使没有人为你鼓掌,也要优雅的谢幕,感谢自己的认真付出。180. Don't let dream just be your dream. 别让梦想只停留在梦里。181. A day without laughter is a day wasted. 没有笑声的一天是浪费了的一天。(卓别林) 182. Travel and see the world; afterwards, you will be able to put your concerns in perspective. 去旅行吧,见的世面多了,你会发现原来在意的那些结根本算不了什么。183. The key to acquiring proficiency in any task is repetition. 任何事情成功关键都是熟能生巧。《生活大爆炸》 184. You can be happy no matter what. 开心一点吧,管它会怎样。185. A good plan today is better than a perfect plan tomorrow. 今天的好计划胜过明天的完美计划。186. Nothing is impossible, the word itself says 'I'm possible'! 一切皆有可能!“不可能”的意思是:“不,可能。”(奥黛丽·赫本) 187. Life isn't fair, but no matter your circumstances, you have to give it your all. 生活是不公平的,不管你的境遇如何,你只能全力以赴。188. No matter how hard it is, just keep going because you only fail when you give up. 无论多么艰难,都要继续前进,因为只有你放弃的那一刻,你才输了。     When Paul Jobs was mustered out of the Coast Guard after World War II, he made a wager with his crewmates. They had arrived in San Francisco, where their ship was decommissioned, and Paul bet that he would find himself a wife within two weeks. He was a taut, tattooed engine mechanic, six feet tall, with a passing resemblance to James Dean. But it wasn’t his looks that got him a date with Clara Hagopian, a sweet-humored daughter of Armenian immigrants. It was the fact that he and his friends had a car, unlike the group she had originally planned to go out with that evening. Ten days later, in March 1946, Paul got engaged to Clara and won his wager. It would turn out to be a happy marriage, one that lasted until death parted them more than forty years later. Paul Reinhold Jobs had been raised on a dairy farm in Germantown, Wisconsin. Even though his father was an alcoholic and sometimes abusive, Paul ended up with a gentle and calm disposition under his leathery exterior. After dropping out of high school, he wandered through the Midwest picking up work as a mechanic until, at age nineteen, he joined the Coast Guard, even though he didn’t know how to swim. He was deployed on the USS General M. C. Meigs and spent much of the war ferrying troops to Italy for General Patton. His talent as a machinist and fireman earned him commendations, but he occasionally found himself in minor trouble and never rose above the rank of seaman. Clara was born in New Jersey, where her parents had landed after fleeing the Turks in Armenia, and they moved to the Mission District of San Francisco when she was a child. She had a secret that she rarely mentioned to anyone: She had been married before, but her husband had been killed in the war. So when she met Paul Jobs on that first date, she was primed to start a new life. Clara, however, loved San Francisco, and in 1952 she convinced her husband to move back there. They got an apartment in the Sunset District facing the Pacific, just south of Golden Gate Park, and he took a job working for a finance company as a “repo man,” picking the locks of cars whose owners hadn’t paid their loans and repossessing them. He also bought, repaired, and sold some of the cars, making a decent enough living in the process. There was, however, something missing in their lives. They wanted children, but Clara had suffered an ectopic pregnancy, in which the fertilized egg was implanted in a fallopian tube rather than the uterus, and she had been unable to have any. So by 1955, after nine years of marriage, they were looking to adopt a child. Like Paul Jobs, Joanne Schieble was from a rural Wisconsin family of German heritage. Her father, Arthur Schieble, had immigrated to the outskirts of Green Bay, where he and his wife owned a mink farm and dabbled successfully in various other businesses, including real estate and photoengraving. He was very strict, especially regarding his daughter’s relationships, and he had strongly disapproved of her first love, an artist who was not a Catholic. Thus it was no surprise that he threatened to cut Joanne off completely when, as a graduate student at the University of Wisconsin, she fell in love with Abdulfattah “John” Jandali, a Muslim teaching assistant from Syria. Jandali was the youngest of nine children in a prominent Syrian family. His father owned oil refineries and multiple other businesses, with large holdings in Damascus and Homs, and at one point pretty much controlled the price of wheat in the region. His mothe凝固的熔岩流。火星上常常有猛烈的大风,大风扬起沙尘能形成可以覆盖火星全球的特大型沙尘暴。每次沙尘暴可持续数个星期。火星两极的冰冠和火星大气中含有水份。从火星表面获得的探测数据证明,在远古时期,火星曾经有过液态的水,而且水量特别大。[51] 土星是离太阳第六颗行星,直径120536㎞,体积仅次于木星。主要由氢组成,还有少量的氦与微量元素,内部的核心包括岩石和冰,外围由数层金属氢和气体包裹着。地球距离土星13亿公里。土星的引力比地球强2.5倍,能够牵引太阳系内其它行星,使地球处于一个椭圆轨道中运行,并且与太阳保持适当距离,适宜生命繁衍。当土星轨道倾斜20度将使地球轨道比金星轨道更接近太阳,同时,这将导致火星完全离开太阳系。[52]  土星是已知唯一密度小于水的行星,假如能够将土星放入一个巨大的浴池之中,它将可以漂浮起来。土星有一个巨大的磁气圈和一个狂风肆虐的大气层,赤道附近的风速可达1800千米/时。在环绕土星运行的31颗卫星中间,土卫六是最大的一颗,比水星和月球还大,也是太阳系中唯一拥有浓厚大气层的卫星。[53] 天王星是离太阳第七颗行星,51118km。体积约为地球的65倍,在九大行星中仅次于木星和土星。天王星的大气层中83%是氢,15%为氦,2%为甲烷以及少量的乙炔和碳氢化合物。上层大气层的甲烷吸收红光,使天王星呈现蓝绿色。大气在固定纬度集结成云层,类似于木星和土星在纬线上鲜艳的条状色带。天王星云层的平均温度为零下193摄氏度。质量为8.6810±13×10²⁵kg,相当于地球质量的14.63倍。密度较小,只有1.24克/立方厘米,为海王星密度值的74.7%。[54] 恒星 恒星 海王星是离太阳的第八颗行星,直径49532千米。海王星绕太阳运转的轨道半径为45亿千米,公转一周需要165年。海王星的直径和天王星类似,质量比天王星略大一些。海王星和天王星的主要大气成分都是氢和氦,内部结构也极为相近,所以说海王星与天王星是一对孪生兄弟。[55]  海王星有太阳系最强烈的风,测量到的时速高达2100公里。海王星云顶的温度是-218 °C,是太阳系最冷的地区之一。海王星核心的温度约为7000 °C,可以和太阳的表面比较。海王星在1846年9月23日被发现,是唯一利用数学预测而非有计划的观测发现的行星。[56] 冥王星,位于海王星以外的柯伊伯带内侧,是柯伊伯带中已知的最大天体。[57]  直径约为2370±20km,是地球直径的18.5%。[58]  2006年8月24日,国际天文学联合会大会24日投票决定,不再将传统九大行星之一的冥王星视为行星,而将其列入“矮行星”。大会通过的决议规定,“行星”指的是围绕太阳运转、自身引力足以克服其刚体力而使天体呈圆球状、能够清除其轨道附近其他物体的天体。在太阳系传统的“九大行星”中,只有水星、金星、地球、火星、木星、土星、天王星和海王星符合这些要求。冥王星由于其轨道与海王星的轨道相交,不符合新的行星定义,因此被自动降级为“矮行星”。[59]  冥王星的表面温度大概在-238到-228℃之间。冥王星的成份由70%岩石和30%冰水混合而成的。地表上光亮的部分可能覆盖着一些固体氮以及少量 卫星拍月球经过地球,可见清晰月球背面 卫星拍月球经过地球,可见清晰月球背面 [60] 的固体甲烷和一氧化碳,冥王星表面的黑暗部分可能是一些基本的有机物质或是由宇宙射线引发的光化学反应。冥王星的大气层主要由氮和少量的一氧化碳及甲烷组成。大气极其稀薄,地面压强只有少量微帕。[61] 地球是离太阳第三颗行星,是我们人类的家乡,尽管地球是太阳系中一颗普通的行星,但它在许多方面都是独一无二的。比如,它是太阳系中唯一一颗面积大部分被水覆盖的行星,也是目前所知唯一一颗有生命存在的星球。质量M=5.9742 ×10^24 公斤,表面温度:t = - 30 ~ +45。[62]  英国科研人员在《天体生物学》杂志上报告说,如果没有小行星撞击等可能剧烈改变环境的事件发生,地球适宜人类居住的时间还剩约17.5亿年,不过人为造成的气候变化可能缩短这一时间。[63] 彗星是由灰尘和冰块组成的太阳系中的一类小天体,绕日运动。[64]  科学家使用探测器对彗星的化学遗留物进行分析,发现其主要成份为氨、甲烷、硫化氢、氰化氢和甲醛。科学家得出结论称,彗星的气味闻起来像是臭鸡蛋、马尿、酒精和苦杏仁的气味综合。[65-66] “67P/楚留莫夫-格拉希门克”彗星 “67P/楚留莫夫-格拉希门克”彗星 [67] 在太阳系的周围还包裹着一个庞大的“奥尔特云”。星云内分布着不计其数的冰块、雪团和碎石。其中的某些会受太阳引力影响飞入内太阳系,这学说,在原有的轨道(或称小天体轨道)上又增加了更多的天体运行轨道。这一模式称每颗行星都沿着一个小轨道作圆周运行,而小轨道又沿着该行星的大轨道绕地球作圆周运动。几百年之后,这一模式的漏洞越来越明显。科学家们又在这个模式上增加了许多轨道,行星就这样沿着一道又一道的轨道作圆周运动。哥白尼想用“现代”(16世纪的)技术来改进托勒密的测量结果,以期取消一些小轨道。在长达近20年的时间里,哥白尼不辞辛劳日夜测量行星的位置,但其测量获得的结果仍然与托勒密的天体运行模式没有多少差别。哥白尼想知道在另一个运行着的行星上观察这些行星的运行情况会是什么样的。基于这种设想,哥白尼萌发了一个念头:假如地球在运行中,那么这些行星的运行看上去会是什么情况呢?这一设想在他脑海里变得清晰起来了。一年里,哥白尼在不同的时间、不同的距离从地球上观察行星,每一个行星的情况都不相同,这是他意识到地球不可能位于星星轨道的中心。经过20年的观测,哥白尼发现唯独太阳的周年变化不明显。这意味着地球和太阳的距离始终没有改变。如果地球不是宇宙的中心,那么宇宙的中心就是太阳。的发现才使牛顿有能力确定运动定律和万有引力定律。哥白尼的日心宇宙体系既然是时代的产物,它就不能不受到时代的限制。反对神学的不彻底性,同时表现在哥白尼的某些观点上,他的体系是存在缺陷的。哥白尼所指的宇宙是局限在一个小的范围内的,具体来说,他的宇宙结构就是今天我们所熟知的太阳系,即以太阳为中心的天体系统。宇宙既然有它的中心,就必须有它的边界,哥白尼虽然否定了托勒玫的“九重天”,但他却保留了一层恒星天,尽管他回避了宇宙是否有限这个问题,但实际上他是相信恒星天球是宇宙的“外壳”,他仍然相信天体只能按照所谓完美的圆形轨道运动,所以哥白尼的宇宙体系,仍然包含着不动的中心天体。但是作为近代自然科学的奠基人,哥白尼的历史功绩是伟大的。确认地球不是宇宙的中心,而是行星之一,从而掀起了一场天文学上根本性的革命,是人类探求客观真理道路上的里程碑。哥白尼的伟大成就,不仅铺平了通向近代天文学的道路,而且开创了整个自然界科学向前迈进的新时代。从哥白尼时代起,脱离教会束缚的自然科学和哲学开始获得飞跃的发展。哥白尼的科学成就,是他所处时代的产物,又转过来推动了时代的发展。顺应时代变化 十五、六世纪的欧洲,正是从封建社会向资本主义社会转变的关键时期,在这一二百年间,社会发生了巨大的变化。14世纪ndali soon after. She held out hope, she would later tell family members, sometimes tearing up at the memory, that once they were married, she could get their 别让梦想只停留在梦里。181. A day without laughter is a day wasted. 没有笑声的一天是浪费了的一天。(卓别林) 182. Travel and see the world; afterwards, you will be able to put your concerns in perspective. 去旅行吧,见的世面多了,你会发现原来在意的那些结根本算不了什么。183. The key to acquiring proficiency in any task is repetition. 任何事情成功关键都是熟能生巧。《生活大爆炸》 184. You can be happy no matter what. 开心一点吧,管它会怎样。baby boy back. Arthur Schieble died in August 1955, after the adoption was finalized. Just after Christmas that year, Joanne and Abdulfattah were married in St. Philip the Apostle Catholic Church in Green Bay. He got his PhD in international politics the next year, and then they had another child, a girl named Mona. After she and Jandali divorced in 1962, Joanne embarked on a dreamy and peripatetic life that her daughter, who grew up to become the acclaimed novelist Mona Simpson, would capture in her book Anywhere but Here. Because Steve’s adoption had been closed, it would be twenty years before they would all find each other. Steve Jobs knew from an early age that he was adopted. “My parents were very open with me about that,” he recalled. He had a vivid memory of sitting on the lawn of his house, when he was six or seven years old, telling the girl who lived across the street. “So does that mean your real parents didn’t want you?” the girl asked. “Lightning bolts went off in my head,” according to Jobs. “I remember running into the house, crying. And my parents said, ‘No, you have to understand.’ They were very serious and looked me straight in the eye. They said, ‘We specifically picked you out.’ Both of my parents said that and repeated it slowly for me. And they put an emphasis on every word in that sentence.” Abandoned. Chosen. Special. Those concepts became part of who Jobs was and how he regarded himself. His closest friends think that the knowledge that he was given up at birth left some scars. “I think his desire for complete control of whatever he makes derives directly from his personality and the fact that he was abandoned at birth,” said one longtime colleague, Del Yocam. “He wants to control his environment, and he sees the product as an extension of himself.” Greg Calhoun, who became close to Jobs right after college, saw another effect. “Steve talked to me a lot about being abandoned and the pain that caused,” he said. “It made him independent. He followed the beat of a different drummer, and that came from being in a different world than he was born into.” Later in life, when he was the same age his biological father had been when he abandoned him, Jobs would father and abandon a child of his own. (He eventually took responsibility for her.) Chrisann Brennan, the mother of that child, said that being put up for adoption left Jobs “full of broken glass,” and it helps to explain some of his behavior. “He who is abandoned is an abandoner,” she said. Andy Hertzfeld, who worked with Jobs at Apple in the early 1980s, is among the few who remained close to both Brennan and Jobs. “The key question about Steve is why he can’t control himself at times from being so reflexively cruel and harmful to some people,” he said. “That goes back to being abandoned at birth. The real underlying problem was the theme of abandonment in Steve’s life.” Jobs dismissed this. “There’s some notion that because I was abandoned, I worked very hard so I could do well and make my parents wish they had me back, or some such nonsense, but that’s ridiculous,” he insisted. “Knowing I was adopted may have made me feel more independent, but I have never felt abandoned. I’ve always felt special. My parents made me feel special.” He would later bristle whenever anyone referred to Paul and Clara Jobs as his “adoptive” parents or implied that they were not his “real” parents. “They were my parents 1,000%,” he said. When speaking about his biological parents, on the other hand, he was curt: “They were my sperm and egg bank. That’s not harsh, it’s just the way it was, a sperm bank thing, nothing more.” Silicon Valley The childhood that Paul and Clara Jobs created for their new son was, in many ways, a stereotype of the late 1950s. When Steve was two they adopted a girl they named Patty, and three years later they moved to a tract house in the suburbs. The finance company where Paul worked as a repo man, CIT, had transferred him down to its Palo Alto office, but he could not afford to live there, so they landed in a subdivision in Mountain View, a less expensive town just to the south. There Paul tried to pass along his love of mechanics and cars. “Steve, this is your workbench now,” he said as he marked off a section of the table in their garage. Jobs remembered being impressed by his father’s focus on craftsmanship. “I thought my dad’s sense of design was pretty good,” he said, “because he knew how to build anything. If we needed a cabinet, he would build it. When he built our fence, he gave me a hammer so I could work with him.” Fifty years later the fence still surrounds the back and side yards of the house in Mountain View. As Jobs showed it off to me, he caressed the stockade panels and recalled a lesson that his father implanted deeply in him. It was important, his father said, to craft the backs of cabinets and fences properly, even though they were hidden. “He loved doing things right. He even cared about the look of the parts you couldn’t see.” His father continued to refurbish and resell used cars, and he festooned the garage with pictures of his favorites. He would point out the detailing of the design to his son: the lines, the vents, the chrome, the trim of the seats. After work each day, he would change into his dungarees and retreat to the garage, often with Steve tagging along. “I figured I could get him nailed down with a little mechanical ability, but he really wasn’t interested in getting his hands dirty,” Paul later recalled. “He never really cared too much about m189. It requires hard work to give off an appearance of effortlessness. 你必须十分努力,才能看起来毫不费力。190. Life is like riding a bicycle.To keep your balance,you must keep moving. 人生就像骑单车,只有不断前进,才能保持平衡。(爱因斯坦) 191. Be thankful for what you have.You'll end up having more. 拥有一颗感恩的心,最终你会得到更多。192. Beauty is how you feel inside, and it reflects in your eyes. 美是一种内心的感觉,并反映在你的眼睛里。(索菲亚·罗兰) 193. Friendship doubles your joys, and divides your sorrows. 朋友的作用,就是让你快乐加倍,痛苦减半。194. When you long for something sincerely, the whole world will help you. 当你真心渴望某样东西时,整个宇宙都会来帮忙。echanical things.” “I wasn’t that into fixing cars,” Jobs admitted. “But I was eager to hang out with my dad.” Even as he was growing more aware that he had been adopted, he was becoming more attached to his father. One day when he was about eight, he discovered a photograph of his father from his time in the Coast Guard. “He’s in the engine room, and he’s got his shirt off and looks like James Dean. It was one of those Oh wow moments for a kid. Wow, oooh, my parents were actually once very young and really good-looking.” Through cars, his father gave Steve his first exposure to electronics. “My dad did not have a deep understanding of electronics, but he’d encountered it a lot in automobiles and other things he would fix. He showed me the rudiments of electronics, and I got very interested in that.” Even more interesting were the trips to scavenge for parts. “Every weekend, there’d be a junkyard trip. We’d be looking for a generator, a carburetor, all sorts of components.” He remembered watching his father negotiate at the counter. “He was a good bargainer, because he knew better than the guys at the counter what the parts should cost.” This helped fulfill the pledge his parents made when he was adopted. “My college fund came from my dad paying $50 for a Ford Falcon or some other beat-up car that didn’t run, working on it for a few weeks, and selling it for $250—and not telling the IRS.” The Jobses’ house and the others in their neighborhood were built by the real estate developer Joseph Eichler, whose company spawned more than eleven thousand homes in various California subdivisions between 1950 and 1974. Inspired by Frank Lloyd Wright’s vision of simple modern homes for the American “everyman,” Eichler built inexpensive houses that featured floor-to-ceiling glass walls, open floor plans, exposed post-and-beam construction, concrete slab floors, and lots of sliding glass doors. “Eichler did a great thing,” Jobs said on one of our walks around the neighborhood. “His houses were smart and cheap and good. They brought clean design and simple taste to lower-income people. They had awesome little features, like radiant heating in the floors. You put carpet on them, and we had nice toasty floors when we were kids.” Jobs said that his appreciation for Eichler homes instilled in him a passion for making nicely designed products for the mass market. “I love it when you can bring really great design and simple capability to something that doesn’t cost much,” he said as he pointed out the clean elegance of the houses. “It was the original vision for Apple. That’s what we tried to do with the first Mac. That’s what we did with the iPod.” Across the street from the Jobs family lived a man who had become successful as a real estate agent. “He wasn’t that bright,” Jobs recalled, “but he seemed to be making a fortune. So my dad thought, ‘I can do that.’ He worked so hard, I remember. He took these night classes, passed the license test, and got into real estate. Then the bottom fell out of the market.” As a result, the family found itself financially strapped for a year or so while Steve was in elementary school. His mother took a job as a bookkeeper for Varian Associates, a company that made scientific instruments, and they took out a second mortgage. One day his fourth-grade teacher asked him, “What is it you don’t understand about the universe?” Jobs replied, “I don’t understand why all of a sudden my dad is so broke.” He was proud that his father never adopted a servile attitude or slick style that may have made him a better salesman. “You had to suck up to people to sell real estate, and he wasn’t good at that and it wasn’t in his nature. I admired him for that.” Paul Jobs went back to being a mechanic. His father was calm and gentle, traits that his son later praised more than emulated. He was also resolute. Jobs described one exampl What made the neighborhood different from the thousands of other spindly-tree subdivisions across America was that even the ne’er-do-wells tended to be engineers. “When we moved here, there were apricot and plum orchards on all of these corners,” Jobs recalled. “But it was beginning to boom because of military investment.” He soaked up the history of the valley and developed a yearning to play his own role. Edwin Land of Polaroid later told him about being asked by Eisenhower to help build the U-2 spy plane cameras to see how real the Soviet threat was. The film was dropped in canisters and returned to the NASA Ames Research Center in Sunnyvale, not far from where Jobs lived. “The first computer terminal I ever saw was when my dad brought me to the Ames Center,” he said. “I fell totally in love with it.” Other defense contractors sprouted nearby during the 1950s. The Lockheed Missiles and Space Division, which built submarine-launched ballistic missiles, was founded in 1956 next to the NASA Center; by the time Jobs moved to the area four years later, it employed twenty thousand people. A few hundred yards away, Westinghouse built facilities that produced tubes and electrical transformers for the missile systems. “You had all these military companies on the cutting edge,” he recalled. “It was mysterious and high-tech and made living here very exciting.” In the wake of the defense industries there arose a booming economy based on technology. Its roots stretched back to 1938, when David Packard and his new wife moved into a house in Palo Alto that had a shed where his friend Bill Hewlett was soon ensconced. The house had a garage—an appendage that would prove both useful and iconic in the valley—in which they tinkered around until they had their first product, an audio oscillator. By the 1950s, Hewlett-Packard was a fast-growing company making technical instruments. Fortunately there was a place nearby for entrepreneurs who had outgrown their garages. In a move that would help transform the area into the cradle of the tech revolution, Stanford University’s dean of engineering, Frederick Terman, created a seven-hundred-acre industrial park on university land for private companies that could commercialize the ideas of his students. Its first tenant was Varian Associates, where Clara Jobs worked. “Terman came up with this great idea that did more than anything to cause the tech industry to grow up here,” Jobs said. By the time Jobs was ten, HP had nine thousand employees and was the blue-chip company where every engineer seeking financial stability wanted to work. The most important technology for the region’s growth was, of course, the semiconductor. William Shockley, who had been one of the inventors of the transistor at Bell Labs in New Jersey, moved out to Mountain View and, in 1956, started a company to build transistors using silicon rather than the more expensive germanium that was then commonly used. But Shockley became increasingly erratic and abandoned his silicon transistor project, which led eight of his engineers—most notably Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore—to break away to form Fairchild Semiconductor. That company grew to twelve thousand employees, but it fragmented in 1968, when Noyce lost a power struggle to become CEO. He took Gordon Moore and founded a company that they called Integrated Electronics Corporation, which they soon smartly abbreviated to Intel. Their third employee was Andrew Grove, who later would grow the company by shifting its focus from memory chips to microprocessors. Within a few years there would be more than fifty companies in the area making semiconductors. The exponential growth of this industry was correlated with the phenomenon famously discovered by Moore, who in 1965 drew a graph of the speed of integrated circuits, based on the number of transistors that could be placed on a chip, and showed that it doubled about every two years, a trajectory that could be expected to continue. This was reaffirmed in 1971, when Intel was able to etch a complete central processing unit onto one chip, the Intel 4004, tronic amplifier. “So I raced home, and I told my dad that he was wrong.” “No, it needs an amplifier,” his father assured him. When Steve protested otherwise, his father said he was crazy. “It can’t work without an amplifier. There’s some trick.” “I kept saying no to my dad, telling him he had to see it, and finally he actually walked down with me and saw it. And he said, ‘Well I’ll be a bat out of hell.’” Jobs recalled the incident vividly because it was his first realization that his father did not know everything. Then a more disconcerting discovery began to dawn on him: He was smarter than his parents. He had always admired his father’s competence and savvy. “He was not an educated man, but I had always thought he was pretty damn smart. He didn’t read much, but he could do a lot. Almost everything mechanical, he could figure it out.” Yet the carbon microphone incident, Jobs said, began a jarring process of realizing that he was in fact more clever and quick than his parents. “It was a very big moment that’s burned into my mind. When I realized that I was smarter than my parents, I felt tremendous shame for having thought that. I will never forget that moment.” This discovery, he later told friends, along with the fact that he was adopted, made him feel apart—detached and separate—from both his family and the world. Another layer of awareness occurred soon after. Not only did he discover that he was brighter than his parents, but he discovered that they knew this. Paul and Clara Jobs were loving parents, and they were willing to adapt their lives to suit a son who was very smart—and also willful. They would go to great lengths to accommodate him. And soon Steve discovered this fact as well. “Both my parents got me. They felt a lot of responsibility once they sensed that I was special. They found ways to keep feeding me stuff and putting me in better schools. They were willing to defer to my needs.” So he grew up not only with a sense of having once been abandoned, but also with a sense that he was special. In his own mind, that was more important in the formation of his personality. School Even before Jobs started elementary school, his mother had taught him how to read. This, however, led to some problems once he got to school. “I was kind of bored for the first few years    

新中国的诞生,彻底结束了旧中国半殖民地半封建社会的历史,彻底结束了旧中国一盘散沙的局面,彻底废除了外国列强强加给中国的不平等条约和帝国主义在中国的一切特权!

中国人从此站立起来了!中国人民从此把命运牢牢掌握在自己手中!中华民族发展进步从此开启了新纪元!尽管出现过“文化大革命”严重内乱,但像过去那种真正内战并没有发生,国家始终保持统一,我国作为世界大国的地位随着在联合国席位的恢复得到世界的普遍公认,新中国仍像巨人一样屹立在世界东方!

伟大改革开放发生在新中国成立以后而不是在旧中国,与这一基本前提的建立有着最直接的关系。

三是确立社会主义基本制度并始终保持其根基,为改革开放奠定了制度基础。

毛泽东那代人在建立新中国的基础上,创造性地完成了由新民主主义革命向社会主义革命的转变,使中国这个占世界1/4人口的东方大国进入了社会主义社会,成功实现了中国历史上最深刻最伟大的社会变革。

改革开放作为社会主义制度自我完善和发展,是这一伟大社会变革的继续。邓小平早在改革开放之初就指出:“我们实行改革开放,这是怎样搞社会主义的问题。作为制度来说,没有社会主义这个前提,改革开放就会走向资本主义。”

社会主义制度不仅保证了改革开放的正确方向,也禁绝了其他社会制度下各种利益集团掣肘的弊端,保证了改革开放的顺利进行。通过改革开放,中国特色社会主义逐步展现出独特的清晰面貌,中国社会释放出巨大能量和新鲜活力。

四是创建新型人民军队并始终置于党的绝对领导之下,为国家稳定发展及改革开放提供了坚强保障力量。

毛泽东是中国人民解放军的主要缔造者。这支新型人民军队的创建,使军队由过去军阀个人的工具转变为执行中国工人阶级先进政党政治任务的武装集团,彻底摆脱了军队控制政权、军阀操纵政党及政治、凌驾于社会之上的梦魇,为中国革命胜利和国家长治久安奠定了基础。

纵观中国历史,一个朝代在其开国后的几十年,军队几乎没有不发生问题的。“贫民伤财莫大于兵,危国忧主莫速于兵”,是旧军队的真实写照。中国历史上发生的情况,始终没有在新中国重现。根本原因就是邓小平深刻揭示的:我们国家所以稳定,军队没有脱离党的领导的轨道,这很重要。

毛泽东那代人创建的这样好的军队,是我们民族、国家和人民的福气,保证了改革开放和社会主义现代化建设在和平安定环境中不断推进。

五是形成和发展毛泽东思想,构建了现当代及改革开放以来党和人民团结奋斗的共同思想基础。

毛泽东是马克思主义中国化的伟大开拓者,是毛泽东思想的主要创立者。

毛泽东思想的产生和发展,使中国人民的精神从近代以来的被动转为主动。毛泽东思想在任何时候都丢不得。我们可以超越毛泽东,但不能跨越毛泽东。离开了毛泽东思想,中国化马克思主义就是无源之水,无本之木。

从一定意义上说,在改革开放中创立和发展起来的中国特色社会主义理论体系,以及习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想,都是对毛泽东思想的继承和发展。

写在党的旗帜上的毛泽东思想和党的其他科学理论一起,构成了改革开放以来党和人民的共同思想基础,指引着改革开放和中国社会主义现代化的正确方向。

六是对适合中国情况的社会主义建设道路进行了艰辛探索,为改革开放和社会主义现代化建设积累了丰富经验。

这一探索的核心是从苏联社会主义建设的模式中走出来,找到一条自己的社会主义建设道路。毛泽东那代人提出了寻找新道路的任务,形成了十分重要的认识。如毛泽东创造性地提出社会主义基本矛盾的学说,为改革开放奠定了坚实理论基础。由于历史局限,毛泽东并没有解决好探索新道路的重大课题,后来还发生了严重的失误、错误。但在经过20多年成功与失败、经验与教训积累的基础上,党终于在十一届三中全会后找到一条以改革开放为鲜明特征的新的社会主义建设道路。

对于这一新道路与毛泽东的探索的关系,邓小平曾作过这样的评论:

“从许多方面来说,现在我们还是把毛泽东同志已经提出、但是没有做的事情做起来,把他反对错了的改正过来,把他没有做好的事情做好。今后相当长的时期,还是做这件事。”

这符合历史本来面貌。

七是建立独立的比较完整的工业体系和国民经济体系,为改革开放准备了初步物质基础。

尽快实现社会主义的工业化,把中国由农业国尽快建成社会主义工业化国家,是毛泽东那代人从开国就矢志不渝的追求。虽然其间遭受严重挫折,但国家建设仍然取得了很大成就。

从1952年到1978年,工农业总产值平均年增长率为8.2%,其中工业年均增长11.4%。1952年中国工业总产值占社会总产值的比重为34.4%,1978年这一数字已上升为61.9%。门类齐全的工业体系已基本形成。人民群众节衣缩食支援国家建设,虽然生活逐年改善的增幅不大,但也初步满足了占世界1/4人口的基本生活需求。科学技术取得了巨大进步,取得了“两弹一星”等一大批代表成果。

对于毛泽东这代人对实现工业化及经济发展的贡献,美国学者莫里斯·迈斯纳作过这样的评述:

【“尽管有着这些失误和挫折,人们还是会得出这样的结论,毛泽东时代是中国现代工业革命的时代。”这是客观、公正的评价。】

八是培育了中国共产党的优良传统作风和伟大精神,这成为推动改革开放和现代化的强大精神动力。

在毛泽东那代人培育下,我们党形成了理论联系实际、密切联系群众、批评和自我批评等优良传统作风,形成了井冈山精神、苏区精神、长征精神、延安精神、西柏坡精神等;新中国成立后,又接续涌现了抗美援朝精神、大庆精神、大寨精神、“两弹一星”精神、红旗渠精神等,这些都是党和人民的共同精神财富。

改革开放后,邓小平多次强调要恢复和发扬前三十年培育的党的精神,以振奋起整个国家奋发图强的精神。

习近平同志明确要求:

【“继承党的一切优良传统、优良作风并结合新的实践不断发扬光大,始终保持革命战争年代那么一股劲、那么一股气、那么一种革命精神,始终保持党同人民群众的血肉联系。有了这一条,我们党就能够永远立于不败之地。”】

九是培养一大批社会主义事业接班人和建设者,为改革开放准备了必要的干部和人才队伍。

办好中国的事情,关键在党,关键在人。毛泽东直接培养及毛泽东思想教育成长起来的一代又一代党的干部队伍,是改革开放能够接力前行的关键。作为改革开放总设计师的邓小平深情地说:

“我们这一代人都是在毛主席的领导下成长起来的。”】

陈云把“培养了一代人”“包括我们在内”“一大批干部”,看作是“毛泽东同志的一个无可比拟的功绩”,认为“现在这些人在全国各个岗位上都担负着重大的责任。这是一件极大的事情。”

习近平总书记在毛泽东诞辰120周年讲话进一步指出:

“毛泽东思想教育了几代中国共产党人,它培养的大批骨干,不仅在新民主主义革命、社会主义革命、社会主义建设时期发挥了重要作用,也为新的历史时期开创和建设中国特色社会主义发挥了重要作用。”】

毛泽东思想将继续福泽后世。

人才培养与教育事业紧密联系在一起。在前三十年,虽然教育事业在一段时间里受到挫折,但全民教育体系基本建立。1980年与1949年相比,高校数量增长2.3倍,在校学生增长8.8倍,各高校和中等专业学校共培养了近900万毕业生和几万名研究生;在我国全民所有制单位从事科学技术工作的各类科技人员中,80%以上是新中国成立后培养的。他们是我国改革开放和社会主义现代化建设所依靠的知识力量基础。

十是努力改善国际环境并突破西方封锁,为对外开放创造了有利国际条件。

毛泽东历来强调独立自主、自力更生,但同时也强调在任何时候都需要争取外援,特别需要学习外国一切对我们有益的先进事物,主张在平等互利的原则下和一切国家建立邦交和进行经济、文化交流。

新中国成立初期,我国虚心向苏联学习;20世纪70年代初,毛泽东那代人审时度势,抓住机遇打开中美关系大门,恢复了我国与各主要资本主义国家外交关系,并开始从这些国家大量引进先进技术和设备;长期不急于解决香港、澳门问题,为我国与西方国家进行贸易和友好交往留下了一个“中介所”,香港、澳门在内地改革开放中发挥了独特的不可替代作用。毛泽东那代人的这些重大决策,为我国对外开放创造了有利国际条件。

正如邓小平所说:

“我们能在今天的国际环境中着手进行四个现代化建设,不能不铭记毛泽东同志的功绩。”】

总之,历史发展是连续性和阶段性的统一。不能用改革开放后的历史时期否定改革开放前的历史时期,也不能用改革开放前的历史时期否定改革开放后的历史时期。这是我们党正确对待自身历史坚持的根本原则,也是我们正确认识毛泽东那代人及那个时代与改革开放关系的根本要求。

      (来源:一代伟人中文网。版权归原作者所有,如有侵权请联系编辑删除)

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