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2017高考英语作文最有可能出现的16类题型!

2017-05-26 高中超越计划

2017高考英语作文最有可能这样考,16类题型大剖析!







前       言






教育部考试中心主任姜钢透露,在命题工作中更加注重“四个加强”[即:加强社会主义核心价值观的考查;加强依法治国理念的考查;加强中国优秀传统文化的考查;加强创新能力的考查。]业内人士认为,无论是发言者的身份,还是探讨的话题,堪称权威重磅。反观近年全国卷真题,2013年I卷的“中国画”、2013年II卷的“中国结”和2015年II卷的“重阳节”均考查了“中国优秀传统文化”这个话题;其中2015年II卷的“重阳节去敬老院”还考查“社会主义核心价值观(孝敬老人)”这个话题。







 一 文 体


1.稳。即文体基本局限于应用文的书信体(含电子邮件);


2.变。即可能会回避近年(特别是两三年内)考过的邀请信、求助信(请求信)、建议信、申请信、咨询信、约稿信。有可能倾向于近年未考过的祝贺信、感谢信、求职信等书信体;另外属于应用文的留言条也是生活中常用文体,也可能是考查方向(2009年I卷考查过留言条)。




 二 话题


1.很可能会突出“中国优秀传统文化”这个方向。例如中国的四大艺术“琴棋书画”、文房四宝、四大发明、四大名著、国粹京剧、唐诗宋词、古代建筑艺术、文化遗址、中国武术、中医中药等等,与这些相关的话题均可能是命题的重要素材。


2.可能是体现“社会主义核心价值观”,如“爱国”“诚实”“守信”等。实际上,这些也是中华优良的传统美德。


3.也可能是升学、留学、求职、招聘等方面相关的话题。



 三  猜题


1.(祝贺信)假如你是李华,你的美国网友Peter参加中国象棋网络挑战赛获得了一等奖。请根据以下提示写一封英文电子邮件向他表示祝贺。

1)祝贺他获奖;

2)肯定他付出的努力;

3)询问何时方便,在网上切磋棋艺。


注意:

1)词数100左右;

2)可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯;

3)开头和结尾已为你写好。

Dear Peter,

I am writing to offer my sincere congratulations

 Congratulations again.

Yours,

Li Hua


范文


Dear Peter,

I am writing to offer my sincere congratulations to you on your winning the first prize in the Chinese Chess Network Challenge. As your friend, I just want you to know how glad I am at your success.

“Everything comes to him who waits.” For these years, you’ve shown great interest in Chinese chess and kept on practicing it every day. Not only have you read many books about Chinese chess strategy, but also you have competed in all kinds of Chinses chess contest. Finally, you succeeded in wining the online competition!

So I’m so happy that you become champion of this network challenge. Atlast, I hope to play Chinese chess with you so that we can make progress together. Please tell me when you have time.

Congratulations again.

 Yours,

Li Hua




2.(介绍古筝)假如你是李华,你的英国笔友Peter对中国传统乐器很感兴趣,写信请你向他介绍一款中国传统乐器,请给Peter写一封回信,内容要点如下:

1)古筝是最古老的中国传统乐器之一,有2500多年历史;

2)古筝是拨弦乐器,早期有5根弦,发展至今有21-25根弦;

3)古筝音色圆润清亮,音域宽广,有“东方钢琴”的美称;

4.随信附寄一张古筝乐曲光盘。


注意:

1)词数100左右;

2)可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯;

3)开头语和结束语已给出。


参考词汇:

the Chinese Zither 古筝;plucked instruments拨弦乐器;string琴弦;sonorous圆润低沉的;the Chinese piano东方钢琴


Dear Peter,

I have gladly received your letter  

Best wishes!

Yours,

Li Hua


 范文


Dear Peter,

I have gladly received your letter telling me that you’re interested in traditional Chinese musical instruments.Now, I’d like to tell you something about the Chinese Zither, one of the most ancient Chinese musical instruments with a long history of over 2500 years.

The Chinese Zither is a plucked instrument and is played with both hands.In the early times it had 5 strings and has developed into 21 to 25 strings up to now.

The Chinese Zither has a wide range and sonorous sound. As its playing appears and sounds like playing the piano, the Chinese Zither is sometimes called “the Chinese piano”.

Enclosed with the letter is a CD of masterpieces of the Chinese Zither. I hope you’ll enjoy it.

Best wishes!

Yours,

Li Hua



3. (成语故事)假如你是李华,你的美国网友Peter对你博客里的一幅漫画很感兴趣,给你留言询问其含义。


请你根据以下提示给他回贴。

 1)成语“闻鸡起舞”的典故;

 2)成语寓意。


注意:

1)词数100左右;

2)可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯;

3)开头语已给出。


参考词汇:patriotic爱国的;crow啼叫,报晓

Dear Peter,

The picture is about a Chinese idiom “wen ji qi wu”.

Yours,

Li Hua

 范文


Dear Peter,

The picture is about aChinese idiom “wen ji qi wu”. This idiom originated from a well-known story happened in Xin Jin Dynasty. In order to serve their country well, two patriotic young men, named Zu Ti and Liu Kun, both got up and practised sword playing the moment they heard the cock crow. Day by day and year in, year out, they never stopped. Later, they all made great contributions to protecting their country.

Nowadays, people usually use the phrase “rising up upon hearing the crow of a rooster to practise sword playing” to signify that someone is exerting himself to do something worthwhile. It is also used to describe that a person of noble aspirations exerts himeself in time.

If you have any other questions about this idiom, please tell me.


Yours,

Li Hua





4.(留言条:邀请看京剧)假定你是李华,你想邀请在中国留学的英国好友Peter观看京剧表演,但Peter不在家,你给他写张留言条,内容要点:

1)你到Peter家的目的;

2)介绍京剧;

3)询问什么时候方便,再约时间观看。


注意:

1)词数100左右;

2)可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯;

3)开头语和结尾语已为你写出。


参考词汇

quintessence精华,精粹;ornate华丽的


Dear Peter,

Yours,

Li Hua


 范文


Dear Peter,

I came to see you but you were out. I’d like to invite you to see Beijing Opera  with me next week, since you have always wanted to know more about Chinese culture since the first day to China.

With a history of nearly 200 years, Beijing Opera is a form of traditional Chinese theatre, which is considered as the quintessence of Chinese culture. The performers in ornate costume perform various stories happened in history to audience by singing, dance and motions. I can tell you more about it when we meet.

Please let me know when you will be free and I will buy the tickets in advance. I sincerely hope that you can accept my invitation and I’m sure you’ll enjoy it.

Yours,

Li Hua





5.  (通知:中华经典朗诵)假如你是学生会主席李华,学生会打算举办中华经典文学朗诵活动,请根据以下信息写一份英文通知。

1)时间:报名截至时间5月20日;活动时间:5月30日下午3:00—5:00

2)地点:学校演讲厅

3)内容和形式:个人或小组朗诵中华经典文学作品

4)奖项:评出前十名颁奖


注意:

1)词数100左右;

2)可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。


参考词汇:

中华经典文学朗诵Chinese Classics Reciting


范文



NOTICE

In order to improve the students’ spoken Chinese and encourage them to read more Chinese classics, a Chinese Classics Reciting contest among the students will be held in the school lecture hall from 3 p.m to 5 p.m on 30th May. It is organized by the Student Union. Those who want to take part in the contest, please sign up in the Student Union office before May 20th.The contesters should recite Chinese classics individually or in a group. The first 10 winners will be given prizes. Everyone is welcome to participate init.

The Student Union

May 10, 2016





6. (邀请信:邀外教参加书法讲座) 假定你是李华,你校外教David对中国传统文化很感兴趣。学校邀请著名书法家沈鹏到校举行书法讲座。请给David发一封电子邮件,邀请他来参加并介绍讲座的有关事宜。

1)讲座时间:5月15日(星期日)上午8:00—11:00;

2)讲座地点:艺术楼演讲大厅;

3) 活动安排:听讲座,讨论及提问,观摩名家即兴创作等。


注意:

1)词数100左右;

2)可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯;

3)开头和结尾已为你写好。


参考词汇:

calligraphy书法;improvise  v. 即兴表演


Dear David,

Yours,

Li Hua


 范 文 


Dear David,

I’m writing to invite you to the lecture on Chinese calligraphy which is the art of writing Chinese characters and especially refers to the rules of writing with a brush.

The lecture will be given by Shen Peng, a famous calligrapher, in the lecture hall of the Art Building on May 15th this Sunday. As far as I know, you like the traditional culture ofChina, so you will enjoy it.

The lecture will last from 8 a.m to 11 a.m, mainly consisting of three parts: one and a half hours’ listening to the lecture, half an hour’s discussion and one hour for observing the calligrapher improvising on the spot.

I will be very glad if you come. Looking forward to your early reply.

Yours,

Li Hua




7.(爱心活动报道)假如你是李华,最近你校学生会向即将毕业的高三学生征集旧书、二手物品,由学生会组织爱心义卖活动以资助本校经济困难的学生。请根据下面的提示,为校报英语角写一篇活动报道。内容包括:

1)活动时间和地点;

2)活动过程;

3)你对活动的感悟。


注意:

1)词数100左右;

2)可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。


参考词汇:义卖charity sale


 范 文



On the afternoon of May 25th an charity sale was held by the Student Union on our school playground. Although it was hard work, students actively took part.

In order to organize it sucessfully, we made full preparations. Before the sale, from the students we collected various used books, second-hand goods which were still in good condition and classified them. When the day came,students and teachers all came and took an active part in it. At the end of the activity, we raised 5000 yuan in total.

All the money we raised will go to the students from poor families in our school to help finish their studies. It’s such a meaningful acitivty that students are all looking forward to the next charity sale.





8.  (高考助威活动报道)假如你是李华,高考前夕,你校组织高一、高二学生为高三学生加油助威活动。请你根据以下提示写一份关于此次活动的英文报道。

1)活动时间和地点;

2)活动过程;

3)你的感想。


注意:

1)词数100左右;

2)可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。


 范文 



As the CEE is approaching, a yearly activity named “Come on Senior Three”was held on our school playground on the afternoon of May 30th.

Aiming to help Senior 3 students to relieve stress and cheer them up, not only teahcers but also the students in Senior One and Senior Two all took an active part in the activity, and they gave wonderful and inspring speeches,besides which, students and teachers sang songs together and they all enjoyed themselves very much.

In my opinion, this kind of activity is a great way to deal with study pressure for Senior 3 students, for they can get away from the study for a moment and get relaxed and refreshed. Therefore with the pressure gone, I think they will do well in the examination.





 9. (介绍端午节)假定你是李华。你刚从英国为期五天的旅游回来,感谢好友Rick的款待。得知他对中国的文化非常的感兴趣,特别是即将到来的端午节,请你写一封信介绍中国的端午节。内容要点:

1)感谢他的招待。

2)介绍中国的端午节(时间,意义,风俗等)

3)欢迎他来中国。


注意:

1)词数100左右;

2)可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯;

3)开头和结尾已为你写好。


Dear Rick,

How is everything going?

---

Best wishes.

Yours sincerely,

Li Hua


  范 文 



Dear Rick,

How is everything going? I had a five-day trip to London last week. I would like to express my gratitude for your hospitality and kindness when I was in London.

Knowing that you take a great fancy to Chinese culture, especially the Dragon Boat Festival, I would love to introduce it to you. The Dragon Boat Festival, one of the most traditional festivals in China, falls on the May 5th in the lunar calendar. People celebrate this festival in memory of Qu Yuan, who was a Chinese poet. Besides, people in China will also hold a variety of activities to honor him, such as dragon boat racing、eating zongzi and so on.

Welcome to China.You will have an unforgettable experience if you come to China before this festival.

 Best wishes.

Yours sincerely,

Li Hua





10. (介绍春节)假定你是李华,你的美国朋友Mike想了解中国的春节,请你给他写封回信介绍这个节日。要点如下:

1)春节的由来及寓意;

2)春节的庆祝活动;

3)邀请他到来中国欢度春节。


注意:

1)词数100左右;

2)可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯;

3)开头和结尾已为你写好。


Dear Mike,

In your last letter, you mentioned that you want to know something about the Spring Festival. I am writing to tell you about it.

Yours ,

Li Hua


  范 文



Dear Mike,

In your last letter, you mentioned that you want to know something about the Spring Festival. I am writing to tell you about it. Spring Festival has a long history, which was originally celebrated to scare away a fierce beast “Nian”. Slightly different from that in the past, it is now given new meanings and regarded as a way forpeople to enjoy reunion with their families however far they live or work. On the New Year’s Eve, each family has its members gathered together. They tell each other their lives in the past year, exchange gifts and eat a lot of delicious meals in the warmth of the family. Children can get lucky money in red paper. People have a good time, holding opera performances, and other celebrations.

I hope you will come here and experience this wonderful festival.

                                                     Yours,

                                                      Li Hua





11. (介绍广场舞)假定你是李华。近日有网友在推特贴出了中国大妈带领美国大妈在新泽西大跳广场舞的照片,你的美国朋友David看过后,很想了解中国流行的广场舞(square dance)的相关情况。请你用英语给他写封回信,要点包括:

1)广场舞跳的时间、地点、参与人员等;

2)广场舞流行的原因;

3)广场舞的缺点。


注意:

1)词数100左右;

2)可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯;

3)开头语和结束语已为你写好。


Dear David,

       I am writing to tell you something about the square dance in China.


                                                                                                                  Yours,

Li Hua


  范 文



Dear David,

     I am writing to tell you something about the square dance in China. In the morning or after dinner, people, especially elderly women, will gather in squares to dance to popular music. More and more young people are also joining in now.

     There are many reasons behind its popularity. First of all,China has made great progress in its social and economical development in the past decades, and people have more time and energy to enjoy themselves. Besides,doing the square dance is a good way for people to keep fit.

     However, just as each coin has two sides,this kind of dance has also leads to some problems. For example, dancers play loud music and occupy lots of public places, which annoy many other people.Maybe square dancers need to make some changes.

                                                                                              Yours,

                        Li Hua




  

12.(应聘信)假定你是李华。你在校英文报上看到了一则招聘启事。

A Research Assistant Wanted

Our university in the countryside is looking for a research assistant. Candidates must have strong computing skills. Ideally suits a graduate from computing fields.

Contact Albert Lee at Lee@Yahoo.com for application or for more information.

请阅读启事并写一封应征邮件。内容要点如下:

1)陈述应征原因;

2)说明应征相关经验;

3)被聘用后的决心。


注意:

1)词数100左右;

2)可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯;

3)开头和结尾已为你写好。


Dear Ms Lee,

I’m looking forward to your reply.

       Yours sincerely,

       Li Hua


  范 文 



Dear Ms Lee,

I have learned from your advertisement that you are in need of a research assistant. I believe I can do the job well, so I’d like to apply for it.

I’m Li Hua, a boy aged 18, and I have just graduated form high school. I’ve been very interested in computer,so my computer teacher used to asked me to help him in class. Besides, I was chosen to take part in a computer design competition. Luckily our group took the first place in it. Hard working and energetic, I shall be a freshman of computer science. Thus, I’m convince that I’m qualified for the job.

Once hired, I would be very grateful and I would devote myself to the post.

I’m looking forward to your reply.

                                                                                                                Yourssincerely,

                           Li Hua




13. (安慰信)假定你是李华,你的美国朋友Tony因考试发挥失常,成绩不理想而情绪低落。请给他写封信表示安慰,要点如下:

1)表示难过和理解;

2)找出错误原因并及时改正;

3) 鼓励他重拾自信,实现梦想。


注意:

1)词数100左右;

2)可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯;

3)开头和结尾已为你写好。


Dear Tony,

Yours ,

Li Hua

  范 文 



Dear Tony,

I’m sorry to hear that you didn’t do well in your exam and that you are very worried about your study. I quiet understand how you feel now.

There is no doubt that we should keep a good state of mind. As we know, failure is the mother of success. We should spare no efforts to analyze the cause of failure,which could help us find out the mistakes we made and try to make up for the lack of knowledge and skills in those areas. Only in this way can we make progress in our study.

I hope that by the time this letter reaches you, you’ll be feeling much better. Let’s work hard together and turn our dream into reality.

                                                    Yours,

                                                      Li Hua





14. (如何学汉语)假定你是李华,你的英国好友 Peter 8月份打算来中国旅游,想先学习一些中文,却不知道如何入门。你决定帮助他,写一份邮件告诉他你的想法。要点如下:

1) 你给他的学习建议

2) 介绍你的帮助计划

3) 对结果的展望


注意:

1) 词数100词左右;

2) 可以适当增加细节,使行文连贯;

3) 邮件开头结尾已为你写好。


Dear Peter,

Looking forward to your early reply.

                                                                                     Yours,

       Li Hua


  范 文



Dear Peter,

Glad to hear that you are going to take a trip to China this August. Welcome! As I know, you are always interested in Chinese culture and want to learn some Chinese.Therefore, I suggest that you choose Chinese daily dialogues as a start, like greeting people, asking for directions and bargaining for souvenirs, which canhelp you a lot during your trip. 

Learning a foreign language needs great efforts. Apparently, I'd like to be your Teacher and send you an e-book with my teaching schedule later. Besides, Let's have an online class over the Internet every weekend, through which I will try my best to make your learning easier and surelly you can speak some fluent Chinesebefore your arrival.

Looking forward to your early reply.

                                                                    Yours,

                                                                    Li Hua





15. (演讲稿)假如你是高三学生李华,请写一篇演讲稿,准备代表全体同学在毕业典礼上发言,内容要点如下:

1)毕业的心情;

2)高中三年的收获;

3)感谢和决心。


注意:

1) 词数100左右。

2) 可以适当增加细节, 以使行文连贯;

3) 开头语和结束语已为你写好。


Good morning, everyone!

I’m Li Hua. It’s my great honor to stand here to deliver my speech. It has been three years since I started my high school.

...

Thank you for your listening.


  范 文



Good morning, everyone.

I’m Li Hua. It’s my great honor to stand here to deliver my speech. It has been three years since I started my high school. At this moment, I cannot bear to part but I am also eager for my new life in university. During the three years, not only have I made some true friends who shared sorrows and joys with me, but also I have gained various knowledge.

Before leaving, I’d like to express my sincere gratitude to my teachers. It was they who patiently answered our endless questions. Besides, I owe many thanks to my dear classmates. Without their help and encouragement, I couldn’t have overcome so many difficulties. Now I’ve been determined to lead a more meaningful  life in university and I will live up to the expectations of my teachers and my parents.

Thank you for your listening.





16. (人际关系)假如你是李华,高三生活已经结束,同学多年,友情、爱情弥足珍贵,请你给你最喜欢的同学或者老师写一封信,要点如下:

1)写信目的;

2)你们之间难忘的事情;

3)再次表示感谢与表达良好的祝愿。


注意:

 1) 词数100左右。

 2) 可以适当增加细节, 以使行文连贯。


  范文1



Dear Ms Zhang,

I’m writing to express my sincere gratitude to you. You are the very person who gave me a hand when necessary.

One month ago, with the College Entrance Examination around the corner, I was nervous and in low spirits, being afraid of letting my parents down because of my average academic performance. When I was at a loss and on the point of giving up, as my headteacher, you asked me to go to your office. Instead of blaming me, you comforted me and discussed with me the reasons for my failing in the exam. More unforgettably, you managed to help me with my study and always inspired me from time to time. Gradually, I learned how to adjust to myself and stayed calm in the College Entrance Examination.

Ms Zhang, I’m more than grateful for what you have done for me, from which I’ve got to know it is never too late to get back when there is still hope. Wish you happiness and good health.

                                                  Sincerely yours,

                                                  Li Hua



  范文2 



Dear Bingbing,

How time flies! As deskmates and roommates for three years, we have developed a solid friendship, which has and will be rooted in our mind. So I’m writing to tell you how I cherish our friendship and hate to say good bye to each other.

As the old saying goes, “A friend in need is a friend indeed!” During these years, you have helped me a lot. What is most unforgettable are the days when I was in hospital. It was you who helped me with my studies and cheered me up. I also remember the days when I was so busy with my trifles that I ignored my friends and even my family. What’s worse,sometimes I was too impolite to say “Thank you” to those who did me favors. It was you who taught me showing gratitude is important and will bring more happiness to the world.

Thank you for what you have done for me, my dear Bingbing. May our friendship last till the end of the universe.

                                                    Yours,

                                                    Li Hua



高考作文中遇到问题怎么办?这里有绝招!(内附:如何科学应对考前焦虑)




转眼之间,高考就驾着七彩祥云来了,你是乘云而去,还是望云而止?最后的冲刺,你需要懂一点作文绝招。

对考生而言,十年寒窗,一“文”不慎,就会折戟沉沙,饮恨考场。这是所有考生不能承受之重。

那么,面对考场作文中出现的一些突发状况,究竟该如何应对?相信这不仅是学生考场作文的万一之需,更是提高他们应对高考的信心之所在。




第一招——借力打力01

当考生作文写着写着,突然发现自己例子举反了,正好是自己打自己的嘴巴。高考作文中,这种情况并不鲜见。

那么,一旦发现自己观点和材料相反,究竟该如何变废为宝,化险为夷呢?

譬如有一年高考作文是写《近墨者未必黑》。

有一个考生举了“孟母三迁”这个材料。但孟母之所以三迁,就是因为“近墨者黑”的缘故。写完后,考生才猛然清醒例子举反了。这个时候的紧张自不待言。那么该怎么补救?

其实,不就一个例证嘛,想明白了,就什么也不要怕。反例正说,说不定由于强大的思辨能力,反而成为作文的一大亮色。我们常常说,要选择典型的事例来证明论点。

但例子能够证明论点吗?本质上,无论什么例子也证明不了论点,例子只能表明论点、说明论点,不能够证明观点。因为当我们选择典型例子的时候,就意味着把不典型的例子、反例子给筛选掉了。这样片面的例子怎么能够证明论点吗?

想想看,如果把被我们筛选掉的反例子拿出来,岂不就证明了我们反面观点了吗?

所以说,例子只能够证伪,不能够证明。

之所以这样说,并非是让我们不重视例子的作用,而是告诉我们,任何例子都有两面性。既然这样,就算不小心举了一个反面例子,我们照样可以左右逢源。

比如在叙述完《孟母三迁》故事后,考生马上就可以这样写:

孟母三迁的故事,表明的自然是“近墨者黑”的道理,但却在无意中泄露了“近墨者黑未必黑”的真相。

孟母三迁了,孟子出息了。但谁能告诉我们,这个出息一定就是孟母三迁的结果?实践是检验真理的标准,但谁的实践是检验真理的标准?由于历史经验的不可重复性,有人获得了实践的检验权,别的实践就没有了检验的机会;但谁能保证它不是真理?譬如孟母没有三迁,孟子照样会取得成就?甚至会取得更大的成就?

进一步来看,孟母三迁之后,孟子成为亚圣,那么肯定有无数母亲效法孟母,有的三迁、四迁、五迁……为什么真正成名的只有一个孟子?

由此看来,一个人会不会变黑,并不在于他的周围如何,而在于他的内心怎样。矛盾总是通过内因来起决定作用,否则,我们就无法理解战斗在敌人心脏里的余则成们,如何在漆黑中保持自己的铁血丹心?


第二招——斗转星移


02

当考生作文写到一半,才发现已写的内容离题了,那么应如何把话题及时扭转回来?或者说让已写的文字化腐朽为神奇?

比如2009年高考江苏卷《品味时尚》,很多考生写到一半发现,自己品的其实不是“时尚”,而是“经典”。

时间如此宝贵,错误如此严重,照理说,这是病入膏肓,无力回天了。其实,大可不必如此悲观,文章本天成,妙手偶得之,只要有那一双妙手,立马之间就可以让你斗转星移,万事大吉。

江苏作文评审组对“时尚”的界定为:审美;有创意;时兴;有人认同和追求。必须同时具备这四大特征,才是时尚。

任何经典注定都不是时兴的,把品味时尚,换成品味经典,文章明显偏题了。

但是,请注意,所有的偏题作文,都不是无缘无故的。两者总有着千丝万缕的联系,因此紧紧抓住这点联系,剖析两者的差别,恰好就变成了对文章概念的厘清和深入阐释,简直妙不可言。

比如,针对上面的这个过失。你完全可以这样弥补:

以上,我花了大量的笔墨来品味经典,但遗憾的是,经典并非是时尚。尽管经典也是审美的,有人认同和追求;但时尚却是时兴的,创意的,在这一点上,两者可谓大相径庭。因为经典是永恒的。它经历了时间漫长的淘洗,尘满面,鬓如霜。有趣的是,经典不是时尚,但时尚却有可能转化为经典。

文章此后转入对时尚有可能转化为经典的论述。时尚的特点,时尚的内涵,在和经典的比较中显得更加清楚,而时尚的趋向,又使得文章更深入一层。这些,岂不都是对时尚的品味?

这样一变,斗转星移,不仅切题了,而且因为有了这一层对比,文章还有了张力,有了更深的意蕴和内涵。


第三招——聚沙成塔


03

对于一则多义性的材料,考生在写作过程中,不知不觉把自己对材料的多种理解都进行了论述,此时应如何赶紧突出中心?

比如,2008年福建高考作文,三个人进商店,分别买饮料,一个买甜的,一个买苦中带甜的,一个买淡的。根据此情景写一篇作文,题目自拟。

对于这样的材料,很多考生会把三种不同含义的细节都进行论述,漫无目的,面面俱到。这就成了“两只黄鹂鸣翠柳”不知所云,“一行白鹭上青天”不知所往。

那么,如何把纷繁的论述聚集起来,聚沙成塔,更上层楼,中心鲜明突出?

结构主义指出,世界不是由物组成的,而是由物与物之间的关系组成的。这时候有必要找出这三者之间本质上的联系,分析他们的关系,或者是对比关系,或者是映衬关系。再分析这些关系之间的转化,或者是在这三者之上,再拔高一个层次,让它能够统摄前三者,使得文章高屋建瓴,识见不凡。

比如上面详细写了三种饮料选择之后,马上就要聚沙成塔,收束全篇。

有人说,三种人三种选择,岂不太繁琐了?我的观点恰恰相反,“三”乃虚指,一生二,二生三,三生万物,三种人三种选择,乃无数人就有无数种选择之谓也。

让喜甜者选择果汁,喜淡者选择矿泉水,喜苦甜者选择咖啡,让所有的人各取所需,各尽其宜,各得所妙,有什么不好呢?参差百态,乃是幸福本源;和而不同,方是和谐之道。

更进一步说,不说不同的人有不同的喜好,同一个人随着时间的变化,也会有不同的选择。

“少年读书,如隙中窥月;中年读书,如庭中望月;老年读书,如台上玩月。”世界是丰富多彩的,人生是瞬息万变的,我们又岂能一以贯之、抱残守缺?


第四招——亡羊补牢04

考生忘记了对核心话题的分析,只把话题当作一个概念,整体打包,囫囵吞枣,乱贴标签,这样的作文,得分一定惨不忍睹。如果在中途忽然醒悟,这时候如何调整,才能转危为安?

其实,整体打包问题最为严重,因为没有形成论证。但就选中途醒悟也不要着急,抓紧亡羊补牢,条分缕析,犹有未晚。这个时候,可以这样挽回。

刚才所说的是品味时尚,那么,何为时尚,我们又该如何品味、咂摸时尚呢?

“时尚”是时兴的,是审美的,是一部分人的独特创意和个性化追求,在模仿和流行中形成。

时尚追求与众不同的个性,但希望有人模仿,又惧怕所有人模仿。时尚源于独有的创意,但希望一时流行,又惧怕长期流行。

时尚永远在路上。时尚总是在高潮中“灿烂的死去”,时尚的极致就是时尚的消亡,但说不定过几年“又在灰烬里重生”……

第五招——绝处逢生


05

如果材料作文审题的难度太大,头绪太多,一团乱麻,根本抓不住要点,此时应该怎么办。

哈哈,孩子们,一旦出现这样的问题,恭喜你得高分的机会就要来了。

比如南京、盐城二模作文题:

俄罗斯著名作曲家格拉祖诺夫听两个年轻人 弹奏勃拉姆斯《第二交响乐》。他们弹得很糟。格拉祖诺夫问他们过去听过没有,他们老实回答说:“没有,没听过。”格拉祖诺夫叹了口气说:“你们真幸运,年轻人,有那么多美好的事物等着你们去发现,而我呢, 什么都已经涉猎了,不幸啊。”

此题头绪太多,你抓不住要点,不妨根据对象,把你所有的困惑写出来。困惑越多越好,而且找到逻辑,一层一层的追问,就是绝妙好文。

譬如格拉祖诺夫为何叹气?觉得自己不幸。一般人会不会觉得自己不幸?这位艺术家觉得不幸的背后究竟是什么?可以从认识问题的角度,从艺术家的追求角度。

年轻人真幸运,为什么说他们是幸运的?把理由说清楚。

但问题又来了。如果一无所知都是幸运,那么我们这些凡夫俗子岂非都是幸运者?这不是太荒谬了吗?

于是问题又来了,既然一无所知并非一定是幸运者,格拉祖诺夫为何这么说,其语言的背后隐藏着什么?

当你一点点分析你的困惑、展示你的挣扎的时候,或者不管高明不高明,在提出困惑之后,给出你自己的解释,不管这个认识是否高明,一篇好的议论文已经呼之欲出,因为议论文所考的是你的分析阐释的能力,不在于你的观点是否高明。

第六招——一步登天


06

当考试时间只剩下几分钟,可是文章还没有写完,应该怎么办?

首先肯定要抓紧完篇,完篇没完篇是两个概念。就江苏省而言,高考评分标准为:

完篇而字数不足,正常赋分之后。再扣字数不足分,每少50字扣1分,扣满3分为止;明显未完篇的文章,视篇幅和内容的实际情况而定,但最高分不能超过46分(参考赋分如下:不满100字,0~5分;200字左右,6~10分;300字左右11~20分;400字左右,21~30分;500字左右,31~40分;600字左右41~46分)。

可能很多学生也知道要抓紧完篇,但究竟怎样才能快速完篇呢?在这里提供几种方式。

第一种是直接式。一句话独立成段,可以换一个角度,成就另一篇天空。

他们,终将会成为我们。

——《他们》

第二种是总结式。用一组排比句总结分论点,再一句话收束,画龙点睛。

只有启程,才会到达理想和目的地;只有拼搏,才会获得辉煌的成功;只有播种,才会有收获。只有追求,才会品味堂堂正正的人。

——《追求》

第三种是哲理式。运用相关哲理名言,既概括全篇,又有余音绕梁之感,言已尽意无穷。

我伸出手遮挡夕阳刺入眼睛的光线,仿若明暗相间的幻象,想起这一路跌跌撞撞,忍不住眼泪灼热地流淌下来。仰头喝下最后一口咖啡,生活的余香留于齿间。伍尔芙微笑着说:“让我们记住共同走过的岁月,记住爱,记住时光。”

——《我于咖啡中看见》

第四种是精短小诗。只需点题,无需押韵,凝练,朴实,意味隽永即可。

想起了彼得拉克的一首经典的小诗:

我充满思虑

信步闲游

对我自己深厚的同情袭击了我

如此浓厚

我禁不住放声大哭

——《同情》

第五种是幽默。诙谐洒脱,智慧聪明,谈笑间,主旨突出,让人会心一笑,喜上眉梢。

“买牌时尚,唱之时尚,头之时尚,博之时尚,咱们己品出了那么一点味出来了,剩下的,就是咱们自己去消化了。记住,品味时尚,所谓的时尚,可以咀嚼,可以回味,但万万不能下咽,就像嚼口香糖!

——《品味时尚》




考试焦虑是一种情绪反应,不仅影响学生的学业成绩和学习活动,也影响学生的心理健康,不少学生每到考试前都会“焦虑上身”。距离高考越来越近,这段时间也成了考生考前焦虑症集中爆发期,常见是担心考试迟到,或出现意外如肚痛、胃痛,又怕前一晚睡得差,影响考试表现。如遇到此情况,有太多未能即时解决的焦虑,不妨试试自我调节,将焦虑降到最低,专心备考,不再被焦虑影响心神。



1、适度平静


每个考生的个性不同,所谓平静的方法也有所不同。平时个性张扬的学生,在张扬的前提下,可稍平静一些;平时内向的学生,在平静中可略张扬一些。所有的调节都不要刻意追求,以最自然、最真实的感受为好。适度压力下的平静也是有利于高考超水平发挥的条件,切记不可刻意为之。


2、适度自信


自信,是成功的起点;失去信心,必然导致失败。但是,自信也要适度,过度自信就是自以为是。平时考得好的学生,不能凭自己有点实力,就盲目乐观,要保证适度自信,拒绝一切犹豫,拒绝一切怯弱。

3、适度动机


动机是要有的,万一实现了呢?但也要掌握适度,动机过强和动机过弱,都不利于高考。若是对自己期望值过高,容易导致考生压力过大,产生紧张、忧郁、恐惧等情绪,甚至导致考试的市场发挥。

4、适度运动


运动可以适当放松心情,缓解紧张情绪。高三学生大都因为学习紧张没时间运动,更要结合自身的情况,抽时间进行适度运动,比如散步、慢跑、简单韵律操等等。不仅可以缓解紧张的神经,提高学习效率,还能保证自己的身体健康,考试时头脑清醒。



5、适度交流


适当的交流放松情绪,完全封闭自己,陷入学习状态中,并不一定是最好的复习方法。可以和同学、家人们进行适当的交流,尤其是同龄人一起备考,面临者同样的情况,同学间适度交流,十分重要的。同龄人的交流对增强信心、减缓压力有很大的帮助。但考前时间宝贵,适度交流,切记不能长谈。


6、充分准备


胸有成竹,才能心中不慌。考前要认真做好复习和准备工作,尤其是考前不到一个月的时间,已经过几轮的系统复习,此时,更注重答题技巧、技能的训练,抓住重点,有的放矢,才能心中有数,从而预防考试焦虑的产生。


7、处变不惊


虽不能人人做到“宠辱不惊”,但考前学生要训练自己在面对变化、困难时,能泰然处之,理智、冷静地分析、判断,采取科学的应对措施。比如,面对试题的难易,要有“人难我难,我不怕难;人易我易,我不大意”之心态。


8、防止过劳


考前做好充足准备固然重要,但大考临近,切忌搞疲劳战术,过度疲劳,容易引起身体、心理上的种种不适,更加不利于考试时水平的发挥。



如何降低考试焦虑?


01

正视担忧

考生不妨把所有担忧的事情逐一列出,理智分析这些担忧真的值得担忧么?通过分析会发现,这些困扰自己的担忧往往会有夸大、不现实等问题。例如,有的考生认为自己不行,过分夸大自己的缺点,同时就会越来越看不到自己优点。正确对待自己的担忧,对担忧做出合理的、积极的分析,才能以良好的心态参加考试。

02

自我暗示

可以适当利用暗示语句的强化作用,进行心理调节。比如说“我能行”、“我一定能够成功”、“我看好我自己”,积极地自我暗示,可以增加自信,可以释放紧张情绪,克服焦虑。

03

转移焦虑

每个考生考前都会有不同成都的焦虑,主要是在如何对待焦虑,考前聚焦点集中在高考上,考生可以适当将精力转移到与高考无关的事情上去。如,欣赏音乐、散步、与人交谈,也可以做深呼吸或大声唱歌、朗诵;也可以做广播操或其他简易运动,让肌肉放松,可以缓解身心疲劳,缓解身心紧张,抑制焦虑程度。切记适度。

04

情感宣泄

情感宣泄是缓解压力、保持心理平衡的重要手段。可以把你的紧张、焦虑讲给亲人或朋友,让自己的内心得到调整;或者找一个适宜的地方,放声大哭或大笑,以宣泄自己内心的忧郁。



最后祝愿所有的孩子们,六月高考迎来你们自己的光辉时刻,相信你们的老师和家长们,待到山花漫烂时,他们一定在丛中笑!



高考易错易混知识点大汇总,高考少犯错就是多拿分!




01语文高考语文最易失分的八种题型和九大经典问题对策

 

1、字音字形题,耗时过多而丢分。

【对策】选择常见100个多音字和100个常错形近字,遵循“以义定音定形”原则,适度联想发散,逐一记忆过关,每天一题,适当训练。

 

2、词语(成语)运用题,不知分类而丢分。

【对策】1)选择100个常考成语和100个常错成语,逐一过关,每天一题,适当训练。2)其他实词虚词不能放松。

 

3、语病辨析题,不分轻重而丢分。

 【对策】汇总高考题,熟悉六种语病类型,分类解析,每周一题,适应训练。语病题是训练低效题。

 

4、文言翻译题,得分点不全而丢分。

 【对策】汇总必修教材中22篇文言文,每天一篇,翻译过关。

重视四个落实:

一是字字落实,重点在单音节词翻译为以该单音节词为核心的双音节词;

二是句式落实,不仅有句式还包括活用法;

三是文从句顺语言落实;

四是得分点定位落实,是得分点的绝对不能译错更不能译掉。

 


1)病句类题目须要注意哪些方面才能够得高分?

做题时,首先通读句子,借助于语感初步判断,然后再根据语法或逻辑知识进行检验,从而得出准确答案。考生判断不准是因为只是跟着感觉走,忽视了用语法或逻辑去检验。


2)压缩语段主要有哪几种考查形式?

压缩语段主要包括4种考查形式:

(1)给新闻拟写标题、导语,或将一段新闻稿压缩为一句话新闻;

(2)给概念下定义;

(3)概括文段的基本内容、主旨;

(4)用简洁的话将图表内容表述出来。


3)扩展语句有哪些种类?

扩展语句可分为以下几种:单句的扩展;复句的扩展;综合扩展,这类扩展可以是由单句到单句,也可以是由单句到复句,总之是使句子生动形象、丰满具体起来;语段的扩展,给定一个话题或提供一个情境,让考生加以阐释、发挥、引申,从而使话题或情境明确、具体,构成一个完整的语句或语段。


4)仿用句式题极具开放性,命题极为灵活,命题形式都有哪几种?

考查的题型主要可归纳为以下几种:

(1)嵌入式。要求仿写的内容镶嵌在语段当中,既有上文的语境,又有下文的语境。

(2)续写式。要求仿写的句子是在给定了上文语境的基础上,承接上文语句的续写,在内容上具有连贯性。

(3)话题式。除给定例句外,还给定几个话题。

(4)限定式。给定例句,并附加其他限定,譬如以××为开头等。

(5)自由式。给定例句,在选材和立意上充分自由。

(6)对联式。给定上联或下联,要求写出下联或上联。


5)考纲中规定的常见修辞方法共有7-9种,非常具体,我们没有疑问,可是对于其命题特点却不清楚。

命题主要有3个特点:

(1)考查运用能力。不考查对修辞方法的辨认,考查修辞方法的运用,即根据规定的情境,运用一定的修辞方法表达一定的思想感情,或表达对事物的认识。

(2)选材具有时代气息。所给材料,所设情境,多来自于现实生活,语文月刊与自然、社会、人生密切相关,往往涉及社会热点问题。

(3)考查具有综合性。高考考修辞,往往与语言表达准确、生动、连贯、得体等结合起来考查,即使是单纯考修辞方法,也很少只考某一种修辞方法,往往多种修辞方法放在一道试题中考查。


6)默写名句名篇这一知识点时应该注意哪些问题?

答:在默写名句名篇时,要做到“三清”、“三不”:

“三清”就是卷面清洁,字迹清楚,笔画清晰;

“三不”就是不添字,不漏字,不误写。


7)文言实词在高考试卷中一般采用哪种形式进行考查?

考查的方式主要有:

(1)选出4个选项中对加点词语的解释正确(或错误)的一项;

(2)比较4个选项中相同词的意义,选出与题干例句中此实词意义相同或不同的一项;

(3)题干例句中加点的文言实词属于某种语法现象(如偏义复词、词类活用),要求从选项中找出与这一现象符合的项;

(4)与现代汉语比较,找出加点的文言实词与现代汉语意义相同或不同的一项;

(5)通过翻译句子题来考查对关键实词的理解等。


8)复习文言虚词这一知识点时应该采用哪些方法?

根据高考对文言虚词的考查向教材靠近的走向,考生必须熟悉教材中出现的常见虚词的意义和用法,并善于将这些虚词与试题中的同一虚词的意义和用法进行比较和辨别。同时,考生还要有意识地培养自己根据语境来判断虚词的意义和用法的能力。


9)高考对筛选文中的信息这一考点的考查有哪些基本要求?

此考点的核心是考查考生对文意的准确理解。这里所说的信息是指符合题目要求,代表某些特定含意的文言词语、短语、句子。筛选并整合文言文阅读材料中的信息,可以帮助我们读懂读通文言材料。






02数学高考数学最易失分的15个知识点及例题解析















03英语

高考英语最易失分的知识点及错因分析















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