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数据动画:烤肉店为什么不推澳牛了? | 数评观点

烽火数闻 烽火数闻DataNews 2021-06-03
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本作品由烽火数闻团队向CGTN供稿,原标题为 How have China's importing tactics altered in 2020?



阅读提要 | 国际贸易伴随着国际局势变化,在彼此的“捡漏子”行为中进行……



   
进口俄罗斯牛肉填补澳牛缺口

If you ask for a recommendation at a BBQ restaurant in China, “try beef from Australia” was, more often than not, the first answer. But as China-Australia tensions intensified, the amount of imported frozen beef from Australia has declined dramatically.

 

当你在中国的烤肉店寻求推荐时,一般服务员都会说“可以试下澳大利亚的牛肉”。但是随着中澳紧张关系的升级,中国(2020年)进口的澳大利亚冻牛肉急速减少。

 
 

The pandemic, trade wars and intensified disputes between countries… all of these factors create a sense of insecurity in international commerce. While China is still expanding its imports, the data reveals subtlety and flexibility in its strategy.

 

疫情、贸易战、愈演愈烈的国家间争端……这些因素都加剧了中国在国际贸易上的不安全感。所以尽管中国仍在扩大进口,但数据揭示出,其进口策略有了更加微妙而灵活的挑战。

 

For trade partners, if possible, China imported more products from countries which enjoy a stable long-term relationship.

 

在选择贸易伙伴方面,中国会尽可能从与中国关系长期稳定的国家进口更多产品。
 
As Australian beef purchases declined in early April 2020, Russia's largest beef producer Miratorg was finally able to enjoy the fruits of a seven-year negotiation and sold 200 tonnes of its product to China. The Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation’s latest data showed that China was the largest buyer of Russian meat last year, with half of Russia’s exported beef consumed by Chinese.
 
当2020年4月初,澳大利亚牛肉进口量下降时,俄罗斯最大的牛肉生产商米拉托尔格终于拿下了耗时长达7年的谈判合同,成功将200吨牛肉卖到中国。俄罗斯联邦农业部最新数据显示,中国去年已经成为俄方肉类的最大买家,俄罗斯出口牛肉一半以上都被中国人吃掉了。

      
             
中国进口了更多食物与原油 

 

In terms of imported products, China bought more food and energy supplies in 2020, stocking up for a rainy day.
 
在进口产品方面,中国在2020年购买了更多的食物与能源,囤货起来以备不时之需。
 
 

In the first half of the year, when the pandemic hit hard, China's imports of beef surged 43 percent. Imports of meat overall more than doubled compared to the same period in the previous year.

 

在疫情严重的2020年上半年,中国进口的牛肉量猛增了43%,进口肉类总量与去年同期相比,翻了一倍多。

 

As for energy supplies, China has strategically imported a decent amount of crude oil at a lower price, since the price plummeted amid the pandemic.

 

在能源供给方面,因为油价受疫情影响暴跌,中国还策略性地以低价买进了不少原油。

 

So, although the volume of imports increased by 7.3 percent compared to the same period in 2019, China actually paid less in total, and import values from major oil suppliers like Saudi Arabia, Russia and Iraq decreased universally.

 

所以,虽然原油的进口量,与2019年同期相比增长了7.3%。但是总的来看,中国最终的花费却节省不少。支付给沙特阿拉伯、俄罗斯、伊拉克等原油主要供货国的进口款项普遍降低。

 
 

    
台湾和越南芯片供应商
受益于中美关系恶化 

On the flexible side, China also tried to keep up with the ever-changing international situation and adjust accordingly.

 

中国的进口策略也更加有弹性。中国也紧跟瞬息万变的国际局势,随时调整进口方向。

 

China’s overall import value dropped by 0.7 percent in 2020. But its import value from Vietnam and the Taiwan region saw surprising growth of 22 percent and 16 percent respectively.

 

2020年中国整体进口额下降0.7%,但是从越南和中国台湾的进口额分别逆势增长了22%和16%。

 

The growth is mainly due to an import surge of microchips. As Sino-U.S. relations became more uncertain, China snapped up microchips to ensure short-term supply and buy more time to develop its own technology.

 

这一增长主要是由于芯片进口的猛增。因为中美关系的不确定性增加,中国抢购芯片以确保短期供应,并争取更多时间发展本国的科技。



中美贸易关系在微妙进化
 

The rise in trade between China and the U.S. also perfectly reflects the complex and volatile relationship between the nations.

 

中国和美国之间的贸易额增长,也正恰当地反映了复杂而多变的国家间关系。


 

Back in 2019, China’s new rising partner was Australia, as the country enjoyed the biggest growth in Chinese imports. In January 2020, China's import value from the U.S. was just equal to about 80 percent of that from Australia.

 

回溯2019,彼时澳大利亚还是中国新兴的贸易伙伴,是中国进口规模增加最多的国家。在2020年1月的时候,中国自美国的进口总额还只是澳大利亚的八成。

 

But as tensions between China and Australia escalated, 12 months later, China was already buying 1.7 times as much from the U.S. as it did from Australia in December.

 

但是随着中澳局势紧张升级,12个月后,中国在2020年12月自美国的进口额已经是自澳大利亚的1.7倍。

 

China’s import value from the United States was up by 224 percent in pork, 122 percent in cotton and 56 percent in soybeans… China was buying big from the U.S., partly due to the phase one trade deal. But this surge was driven by demand, as Chinese people’s consumption power is growing. 

 

来自美国的进口中,猪肉进口额增长224%,棉花增长122%,大豆增长56%。中国的确从美国进口了更多的食物,而且部分归功于中美第一阶段贸易协议,但这种增长也是实际需求驱动的结果,因为中国人民的消费能力还在不断增长。


 



China adjusted its import strategy in flexible and practical ways in 2020. And the binding rule is to always ensure the basic supply of the necessities for the Chinese people.
 
总的来说,2020年中国调整了进口策略,变得更加灵活和实际。而总的准则是始终保证中国人民生活必需品的基本供应。
 
After all, as long as the BBQ restaurants still have high-quality meat to serve, it doesn’t really matter which country it comes from.

毕竟,只要烤肉店里有高质量的肉可以卖,肉来自哪里就并不那么重要。



Production Manager  /  Dai Yu

Script  /  Han Mo, Zhao Yuanzhen

Data Collection  /  Wu Ao

Graphic & Motion Designer  /  Liu Si & Shen Yuran

Data Checker  /  Wu Ao

Senior Producer  /  Bi Jianlu



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