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今日俄罗斯|《经济学人》:红墙内的男人帮,窥探普京王朝

2016-09-24 从余启 我与我们的世界 我与我们的世界

欢迎打开“我与我们的世界”,从此,让我们一起“纵览世界之风云变幻、洞察社会之脉搏律动、感受个体之生活命运、挖掘自然之点滴奥妙”。

我与我们的世界,既是一个“奋斗”的世界,也是一个“思考”的世界。奋而不思则罔,思而不奋则殆。这个世界,你大,它就大;你小,它就小。

欢迎通过上方公众号名称打开公众号“查看历史信息”来挖掘往期文章,因为,每期都能让你“走近”不一样的世界、带给你不一样的精彩

本期导读
:纵览世界范围内的国家领导人,除了俄罗斯的普京之外,没人敢抢美国总统的风头
 

不过,不管哪个国家的领导人,光他或她一个人是干不了什么事儿的,尽管抛头露面的总是他或她一个人,但背后总需要一群人为他参谋,或为他所用,才行。
 

俄罗斯知名记者米哈伊尔•吉加尔最近在美国出版的新书《红墙内的男人帮:窥探普京王朝》就为人们对普京的谋士们或手爪们进行了一副全景式的展现。
 

本期所选文章,就是《经济学人》对新书《红墙内的男人帮:窥探普京王朝》进行的简要评介。俄罗斯是一团谜,普京也是一团谜,俄罗斯与普京加在一起更是一团谜,看俄罗斯知名记者如何解开这团谜。。。


Cluster bomb

引弹者普京

How Russia is ruled

俄罗斯是如何被统治的?

 


The godfather of them all

带头大哥普京

 

All the Kremlin’s Men: Inside the Court of Vladimir Putin. By Mikhail Zygar. Public Affairs; 371 pages; $27.99.

《红墙内的男人帮:窥探普京王朝》米哈伊尔•吉加尔,共371页,27.99美元,公共事务出版社
 

“WHO is Mr Putin?” a foreign-affairs columnist famously asked when the then unknown Vladimir Putin took office in 2000. Now, more than 16 years into his rule, the question has become: Which Mr Putin is the real Mr Putin? Is it the coolly pragmatic accidental president who once discussed joining NATO? The swaggering manager of a country drunk on petrodollars? Or the new tsar, out to restore Russian greatness, annexing Crimea and relentlessly challenging the Western order?

“普京是谁?”,这是一位外事专栏作家在名不见经传的普京于2000年初出茅庐时所抛出的一个问题。到目前为止,普京掌权已超过16年之久,现在的问题应该已变成:哪个普京才是真正的普京?是那个沉着冷静、实用主义且曾一度探讨加入北约的普京,还是那个威风凛凛、掌管着广袤疆域且曾沉迷于石油美元的普京,亦或是那个吞并克里米亚、总是挑战西方秩序且试图重振帝国雄威的新沙皇?


1.court [kɔːt]   n. 法院;球场;朝廷;奉承;vt. 招致(失败、危险等);向…献殷勤;设法获得;vi. 求爱

2.coolly ['kulli]   adv. 冷静地;沉着地

3.pragmatic [præg'mætɪk]   adj. 实际的;实用主义的;国事的

4.accidental [æksɪ'dent(ə)l]   adj. 意外的;偶然的;附属的;临时记号的;n. 次要方面;非主要的特性;临时记号

5.swaggering ['swægəriŋ]  adj. 大摇大摆的;vt. 吹牛;神气活现;昂首阔步(swagger的现在分词);vi. 威吓;吓唬(swagger的现在分词)

6.annex[æˈnɛks; (for n.)ˈænɛks] vt. 附加;获得;并吞; n. 附加物;附属建筑物

7.relentlessly [rɪ'lɛntlɪslɪ]   adv. 残酷地,无情地


The answer, Mikhail Zygar argues in a compelling new book, “All the Kremlin’s Men”, is that all of these hold true. Mr Zygar, a leading Russian journalist, portrays a ruler who has transformed himself in response to outside events. This is especially so regarding the Western world. Mr Zygar argues that Mr Putin began his presidency convinced that he could build good relations with the West, particularly with America. By his third term, having accumulated a litany of grievances and grudges, he has become what Mr Zygar describes as a “world-weary…Slavophile philosopher” who reportedly told Joe Biden, America’s vice-president: “We are not like you. We only look like you.”

这个问题的答案,俄罗斯知名记者米哈伊尔•吉加尔在其新书《红墙内的男人帮》里表达的非常清楚:所有这些,都是真实的普京。吉加尔在书中表示,普京一直对外界的变化进行着回应,并由此调整着自己、改变着自己,特别是与西方相处的过程中更是这样。吉加尔认为,普京踏上总统之路伊始,深信自己能与西方世界建立起良好关系,特别是与美国。但到第三次担任总统之时,普京对西方已是满腔愤恨。据媒体报道,普京曾对美国副总统拜登说道:“我们和你们不一样。我们只是和你们长得有点儿像。”据吉加尔观察,说这句话时,普京颇有一种“厌世型斯拉夫哲学家”的范儿。


1.compelling [kəm'pelɪŋ]   adj. 引人注目的;强制的;激发兴趣的;v. 强迫;以强力获得(compel的ing形式)

2.portray [pɔː'treɪ]   vt. 描绘;扮演

3.litany ['lɪt(ə)nɪ]   n. 冗长而枯燥的陈述;连祷

4.grievance ['griːv(ə)ns]  n. 不满,不平;委屈;冤情

5.grudge [grʌdʒ]   vt. 怀恨;吝惜;妒忌;不情愿做;n. 怨恨;恶意;妒忌

6.weary ['wɪərɪ]   adj. 疲倦的;厌烦的;令人厌烦的;vi. 疲倦;厌烦;vt. 使疲倦;使厌烦

7.Slavophile ['sla:vəfail]   adj. 亲斯拉夫人的;n. 亲斯拉夫者


Refreshingly, Mr Zygar chooses to focus not on the president himself, but on the courtiers who have shaped and shepherded him. He tells an insider’s tale, drawing on material collected over many years, latterly as editor-in-chief of TV Rain, Russia’s last independent television network (Mr Zygar stepped down last December, not long after this book was published in Russia). He brings fresh insight to characters such as Mikhail Khodorkovsky, the ex-boss of Yukos who was convicted of underpaying taxes, and Dmitry Medvedev, Russia’s prime minister. And he pulls back the curtain on several key figures whom Western readers may not know, such as Viktor Medvedchuk, the chief-of-staff of the former Ukrainian president, Leonid Kuchma, and Vyacheslav Volodin, a political strategist who engineered Mr Putin’s conservative turn in his third term.

令人耳目一新的是,吉加尔的关注点没有放在普京本人身上,而是放在了曾对普京有过重要影响的追随者们。吉加尔曾是俄罗斯仅剩的一家独立电视台的总编,不过已于去年12月份停止了担任电视台总编,那时他的这本新书在俄罗斯出版还没过多久。过去的很多年里,吉加尔搜集了大量资料,因此,书中所提到的,都可算是内情。吉加尔所叙述的人物,有曾被控逃税的俄罗斯尤科斯石油公司前老板米哈伊尔•霍多尔科夫斯基,以及俄罗斯总理德米特里•梅德韦杰夫。同时,吉加尔还描述了西方读者不大知道的几个关键人物,如乌克兰前总统列昂尼德•库奇马手下的幕僚长官维克多•梅德维德丘克,以及对普京第三总统任期保守转向起关键作用的政治战略家切斯拉夫•沃洛金。


1.refreshingly [rɪ'frɛʃɪŋli] adv. 清爽地;有精神地

2.courtier['kɔːtɪə]   n. 朝臣;奉承者;谄媚者

3.shepherd ['ʃepəd]   vt. 牧羊;带领;指导;看管;n. 牧羊人;牧师;指导者


Mr Zygar portrays Mr Putin as a reactionary tactician rather than a nefarious grand strategist. Fate and opportunity play more of a role than calculated scheming. One example was the decision to clamp down on the independent media after its withering coverage of Mr Putin’s clumsy handling of the Kursk submarine sinking in August 2000. But two important constants emerge. At home, Mr Putin is driven by the pursuit of power, and abroad, by the perception that the West does not respect Russia and its interests (including its primacy over former Soviet neighbours). From the start, Ukraine occupied a central place. “We must do something, or we’ll lose it,” Mr Putin often repeated to his staff (or so Mr Zygar reports).

根据吉加尔书中描述,普京更像是一个反动保守的战术者,而非一位雄韬伟略的谋略家。很多情况下,运气和机遇显得比周密计划更为重要。一个例子就是,独立媒体关于普京对2000年8月“库尔斯克”号核潜艇沉没事件处理手法的笨拙进行讽刺性的报道后,就遭到了打压。不过,与此同时,也出现了两个比较重要的驱动力。就内部来说,是对权力的追求,就外部来说,是认识到西方不尊重俄罗斯及其核心利益,包括俄罗斯对前苏联邻国所具有的支配地位。从一开始,乌克兰就成为问题的核心。普京经常跟下述说道:“我们必须有所行动,不然将会失去乌克兰。”吉加尔在书中这样描述。


1.reactionary [rɪ'ækʃ(ə)n(ə)rɪ]   adj. 保守的,反动的;反动主义的;反对改革的;n. 反动分子;反动派;保守派

2.tactician [tæk'tɪʃən]   n. 战术家;谋士

3.nefarious [nɪ'feərɪəs]   adj. 邪恶的;穷凶极恶的;不法的

4.withering ['wɪðərɪŋ]   adj. 使干枯的;使畏缩的;极有毁灭性的;极有讽刺性的;n. 枯萎;凋谢;v. 使凋谢;干枯;减弱;摧毁(wither的现在分词)

5.clumsy ['klʌmzɪ]   adj. 笨拙的,不得当的

6. constant ['kɒnst(ə)nt]   adj. 不变的;恒定的;经常的;n. [数] 常数;恒量

7.primacy ['praɪməsɪ]   n. 首位;卓越;大主教的职位


What unfolds is a tale of Russian politics based on personalities, ego and ambition, rather than policy, convictions or ideology. Mr Zygar focuses on the fluid allegiances of the polittekhnologs, the uniquely Russian spin doctors who shaped the recent political landscape. Mr Volodin began his career running Yevgeny Primakov’s campaign against Mr Putin’s nascent Unity party; only in recent years did he become Mr Putin’s chief political adviser. Vladislav Surkov, an architect of Unity, meanwhile, aligned himself with Mr Medvedev during Mr Putin’s interregnum, only to return to the fold as his point man on the Ukraine crisis. If there is any question, Mr Zygar writes, that a given event is the result of “malicious intent or human error, rest assured that it is always the latter”.

从吉加尔的书中可以发现,俄罗斯的政治是基于名人个性、自我意识以及雄心抱负,而非基于政策措施、观念信仰或意识形态。吉加尔就俄罗斯政界“政治形象塑造师们”对政治人物效忠的流变进行了重点梳理。沃洛金的政治生涯是从为叶夫根尼•普里马科夫运作竞选活动开始的,当时普里马科夫的竞争对手就是由普京所领导刚成立的统一俄罗斯党,只是到了近几年,沃洛金才成为了普京的主要智囊。统一俄罗斯党的主要功臣之一弗拉季斯拉夫•苏尔科夫,在普京前两任总统任期之间,一直站在梅德韦杰夫那边,只是在乌克兰危机爆发后才重归普京这边成为处理危机的排头兵。吉加尔在书中说道,若要问某个事件是源于“恶性意图还是人为错误,可以肯定地说,总是源于后者。


1.unfold[ʌn'fəʊld]   vt. 打开;呈现;vi. 展开;显露

2.conviction[kən'vɪkʃ(ə)n]   n. 定罪;确信;证明有罪;确信,坚定的信仰

3.fluid ['fluːɪd]   adj. 流动的;流畅的;不固定的;n. 流体;液体

4.allegiance[ə'liːdʒ(ə)ns]   n. 效忠,忠诚;忠贞

5.spin doctor: a public relations person who tries to forestall negative publicity by publicizing a favorable interpretation of the words or actions of a company or political party or famous person. 起导向作用者;大话精

6.nascent ['næs(ə)nt; 'neɪ-]   adj. 初期的;开始存在的,发生中的

7.interregnum [,ɪntə'regnəm]   n. 中断;空位期;过渡期;间歇

8.fold [fəʊld]   vt. 折叠;合拢;抱住;笼罩;n. 折痕;信徒;羊栏;vi. 折叠起来;彻底失败

9.point man   先头侦察兵;主力队员

10.malicious [mə'lɪʃəs]  adj. 恶意的;恶毒的;蓄意的;怀恨的


The stream of court intrigue gives “All the Kremlin’s Men” the juicy allure of a Russian thriller. But structuring the book around members of Mr Putin’s entourage leads to some confusing chronological leaps. Foreign readers may struggle; the English edition has a list of characters, but a timeline would also have come in handy.

新书《红墙内的男人帮》关于宫廷阴谋的描述,让人感觉像是一部俄罗斯惊悚小说。不过,整本书的结构都是围绕着普京的追随者而展开的,因而,事件先后顺序显得有点错乱,特别是对于外国读者来说更是如此。该书的英文版虽附有一个人物列表,但若能添加一个事件顺序表的话,则会显得更好些。


1.intrigue [ɪn'triːg]   n. 阴谋;诡计;复杂的事;私通;vt. 用诡计取得;激起...的兴趣;vi. 私通;密谋

2.juicy ['dʒuːsɪ]   adj. 多汁的;利润多的;生动的

3.allure [əˈlʊə(r)]   vt. 引诱,诱惑;吸引;n. 诱惑力;vi. 诱人,吸引人

4.thriller ['θrɪlə]   n. 惊险小说;使人毛骨悚然的东西;使人毛骨悚然的小说

5.entourage ['ɒntʊraːʒ;]   n. 随从;周围;环境

6. chronological [krɒnə'lɒdʒɪk(ə)l]   adj. 按年代顺序排列的;依时间前后排列而记载的

7.come in handy: be useful for a certain purpose迟早有用,派得上用场


More troubling is Mr Zygar’s reliance on hearsay and anonymous sources, a flaw he readily owns up to and tries to parlay into insight. Thus, readers should take his verbatim report of some of Mr Putin’s private remarks, for example, with a grain of salt. Even so, the conflicting accounts and confused recollections of his subjects lead him to identify one of the Putin era’s defining features: the absence of plans or strategy. As Mr Zygar concludes, “It is logic that Putin-era Russia lacks.” That, more than the master plots often ascribed to Mr Putin, is reason for the West to fear him.

更令人感到遗憾的是,吉加尔所提供的信息很多都是通过传闻或匿名信息来源,关于这个缺陷,吉加尔也承认,但依然把这些信息作为内情呈献给了大家。这样,读者在看到关于普京自己所说的话的时候,逐字逐句都需注意,需要保持一定的怀疑空间。不过,尽管该书在人物的解释叙述方面显得有点错乱,但终归还是总结出了普京时代的一个重要特征,即缺乏计划性或战略性。正如吉加尔总结的那样,“普京时代的俄罗斯缺乏的是逻辑性。”也正是这一点,而不是通常人们认为普京所具有的战略谋划,才是让西方更惧怕的。


1.hearsay ['hɪəseɪ]   n. 传闻,谣言;adj. 传闻的,风闻的

2.own up: admit or acknowledge a wrongdoing or error

3.parlay ['paːleɪ]  vt. 使增值;充分利用;连本带利地赌博;n. 连本带利的赌博

4.verbatim [vɜː'beɪtɪm]   adv. 逐字地;adj. 逐字的

5.grain of salt: (with) a grain of salt, or a pinch of salt, is an idiom which means to view something with skepticism, or to not take it literally.

6.account [ə'kaʊnt]  n. [会计] 账户;解释;[会计] 账目,账单;理由

7.recollection[,rekə'lekʃ(ə)n]   n. 回忆;回忆起的事物

8.ascribe [ə'skraɪb]  vt. 归因于;归咎于


注:

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