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世界楷模|《经济学人》:自由女神,抛弃了美国,北上了加拿大

2016-11-01 从余启 我与我们的世界 我与我们的世界

欢迎打开“我与我们的世界”,从此,让我们一起“纵览世界之风云变幻、洞察社会之脉搏律动、感受个体之生活命运、挖掘自然之点滴奥妙”。

我与我们的世界,既是一个“奋斗”的世界,也是一个“思考”的世界。奋而不思则罔,思而不奋则殆。这个世界,你大,它就大;你小,它就小。

欢迎通过上方公众号名称打开公众号“查看历史信息”来挖掘往期文章,因为,每期都能让你“走近”不一样的世界、带给你不一样的精彩


本期导读:说实话,在当前这个现代化了的世界,不管是在全球的哪个角落,不管是在什么体制类型的国家,不管是在哪个行业混饭吃,生活都不易


在中国,房价如出土春笋般节节高,令工薪阶层叫苦连天;汇率如劣性玩猴般上蹿下跳,令国际游走者搔脑抓腚;实业如食之无味、弃之可惜的鸡肋,令企业家们沉溺于虚拟经济;反腐如长征一样漫漫看不到尽头,令做发财梦的官员们郁郁寡欢;而似有若无的三观价值,令整个社会退变成一叶漂泊于茫茫大海的扁舟,没有了灯塔,迷失了航向。


在美国,人们正为挑选自己中意的总统而焦头烂额;在欧洲,金融危机、恐怖主义、难民问题、英国脱欧,震荡是一波接一波。中东的战事依然频仍,非洲仍旧饥饿,南美的寨卡仍未根除,而与中国陆、海搭界的东、西、南、北亚,都在慎之又慎地,观察着中国的一举一动


不过,令人感到欣慰的是,就在这么一个纷乱嘈杂、危险重重的世界里,依然有片稍微能给人以慰藉、令人向往的伊甸净土,它就是位于北美的加拿大。最新一期的《经济学人》因之还推出特别报道,把加拿大视为整个世界的模范,对其进行了详尽的解析。




Canada’s example to the world

模范生加拿大的世界意义 

Liberty moves north

自由女神,抛弃了美国,北上了加拿大 


It is uniquely fortunate in many ways—but Canada still holds lessons for other Western countries

很多方面,加拿大都极其与众不同,但是,对其他西方国家来说,加拿大依然具有借鉴意义。

 

WHO will uphold the torch of openness in the West? Not America’s next president. Donald Trump, the grievance-mongering Republican nominee, would build a wall on Mexico’s border and rip up trade agreements. Hillary Clinton, the probable winner on November 8th, would be much better on immigration, but she has renounced her former support for ambitious trade deals. Britain, worried about immigrants and globalisation, has voted to march out of the European Union. Angela Merkel flung open Germany’s doors to refugees, then suffered a series of political setbacks. Marine Le Pen, a right-wing populist, is the favourite to win the first round of France’s presidential election next year.

今天的西方世界,谁能扛起包容开放这面大旗?可以确信,肯定不会是美国的下届总统。到处乱泼苦水的共和党总统候选人特朗普,要在美墨边境建立隔离墙防止非法移民,要撕毁贸易协议保护国内就业。11月8日有可能赢得大选的希拉里,在移民问题上略显好些,但在贸易问题上她却已改弦更张,诀别于曾经鼎力支持签订自由贸易协议的自己。而英国,对移民和全球化忧心忡忡,全民公投决定脱离欧盟。德国的默克尔,向难民敞开大门后,遭受到系列政治危机。在法国,右翼民粹领袖勒庞,成为明年法国总统大选首轮胜出的热门人物。


1.uniquely [ju:'ni:kli] adv. 独特地;珍奇地

2.fortunate ['fɔːtʃ(ə)nət] adj. 幸运的;侥幸的;吉祥的;带来幸运的

3.lesson ['lesən] n.课,功课,课业;(教科书中的)课;一节课;一堂课;[复数] 教程,课程;经验;教训;(有教益的、可供借鉴的)榜样,典范;【宗教】(基督教礼拜仪式上的)圣经选读;责备斥责,训斥;告诫;惩戒;vt. 教;给…上课;申斥,训斥;告诫;教训

4.grievance ['griːv(ə)ns] n. 不满,不平;委屈;冤情

5.monger ['mʌŋɡə] vt. 传播,贩卖;n. 商人,贩子

6.renounce[rɪ'naʊns] vt. 宣布放弃;与…断绝关系;垫牌;vi. 放弃权利;垫牌;n. 垫牌

7.ambitious [æm'bɪʃəs] adj. 野心勃勃的;有雄心的;热望的;炫耀的

8.fling [flɪŋ] vt. 掷,抛;嘲笑;使陷入;轻蔑地投射;猛动;n. 掷,抛;嘲弄;急冲;vi. 猛冲,急行


In this depressing company of wall-builders, door-slammers and drawbridge-raisers, Canada stands out as a heartening exception. It happily admits more than 300,000 immigrants a year, nearly 1% of its population—a higher proportion than any other big, rich country—and has done so for two decades. Its charismatic prime minister, Justin Trudeau, who has been in office a year, has welcomed some 33,000 Syrian refugees, far more than America has. Bucking the protectionist mood, Canada remains an eager free-trader. It was dismayed by the EU’s struggle to overcome a veto by Walloons on signing a “comprehensive” trade agreement that took seven years to negotiate. Under Mr Trudeau, Canada is trying to make amends for its shameful treatment of indigenous peoples, and is likely to become the first Western country to legalise recreational cannabis on a national level. 

美国要修墙防止移民,德国要关门阻止移民,英法要拆路阻断移民,在这一股又一股的保守主义浪潮中,加拿大却鹤立鸡群,令人振奋。每年,加拿大接收30多万外来移民,这相当于其人口总量的1%,该比例比其他任何西方大国的都要高,而且,这种状况已持续长达二十年左右。加拿大魅力型总理特鲁多,在其执政的一年间,接收的叙利亚难民约有3300位,这远比美国接收的要多得多。当前,全球贸易保护主义气氛浓重,而加拿大却依然是自由贸易的积极倡导者。加拿大与欧盟经过七年漫长谈判达成的“全面型”贸易协议马上就要签署,没想到被比利时瓦隆法语区地方议会否决,欧盟对此大伤脑筋,也让加拿大感到沮丧(译者注:好在有惊无险,加欧已于10月30日完成该协议的签订)。加拿大特鲁多政府也正在努力,为原住民权益遭践踏采取补救措施,与此同时,加拿大还可能成为在国家层面对大麻休闲消费进行合法化的第一个西方国家。


1.company ['kʌmp(ə)nɪ] n. 公司;陪伴,同伴;连队;vi. 交往;vt. 陪伴

2.drawbridge ['drɔːbrɪdʒ] n. (可开闭的)吊桥

3.bucking [bʌkiŋ] v. (马等)突然弓背跃起(把人摔下);顶撞(buck的ing形式) 

4.dismay [dɪs'meɪ] n. 沮丧,灰心;惊慌;vt. 使沮丧;使惊慌

5.recreational [rekrɪ'eɪʃənl] adj. 娱乐的,消遣的;休养的

6.cannabis ['kænəbɪs] n. 印度大麻(等于hemp);大麻烟原料;大麻雌花顶部


Go, Canada!

加拿大,前进,前进,再前进!

Irredeemably dull by reputation, less brash and bellicose than America, Canada has long seemed to outsiders to be a citadel of decency, tolerance and good sense. Charles Dickens, bewildered by a visit to America in 1842, found relief in Canada, where he saw “public feeling and private enterprise in a sound and wholesome state; nothing of flush or fever in its system.” Modern Canada’s social safety net is stronger than America’s; its gun-control laws saner. Today, in its lonely defence of liberal values, Canada seems downright heroic. In an age of seductive extremes, it remains reassuringly level-headed.

与美国相比,加拿大既没美国名气那么名扬四海,也没美国行事那么风风火火,更没美国斗志那么威震天下,但很久以来,加拿大却都是人们心目中的礼仪之邦、包容之国、理智之地。1842年到访美国后感到无限困扰的英国作家查尔斯·狄更斯,却在加拿大找到了慰藉:“公共的情绪是理性的,个人的进取是健康的,社会中,完全没有那种泛滥成灾的激情、铺天盖地的狂热。”现在的加拿大,社会安全网比美国的牢靠,枪支管控法律也比美国的健全。当今的世界中,加拿大成为了自由价值的唯一捍卫者,这也成就了加拿大所具有的那种彻底的英雄风范。在这个偏激主义难以抗拒的时代,唯有加拿大依然保持冷静,因此这也给人以深深的安慰之感。


1.redeemable [rɪ'diːməbl] adj. 可赎回的;可偿还的;可挽救的;可换成现款的

2.brash [bræʃ] adj. 无礼的,傲慢的;仓促的,性急的;n. 骤雨;碎片;胃灼热

3.bellicose ['belɪkəʊs] adj. 好战的;好斗的

4.citadel ['sɪtəd(ə)l] n. 城堡;大本营;避难处

5.decency ['diːs(ə)nsɪ] n. 正派;体面;庄重;合乎礼仪;礼貌

6.bewilder[bɪ'wɪldə] vt. 使迷惑困惑,使不知所措

7.enterprise ['entəpraɪz] n. 企业;事业;进取心;事业心

8.wholesome ['həʊls(ə)m] adj. 健全的;有益健康的;合乎卫生的;审慎的

9.flush [flʌʃ] n. 激动,洋溢;面红;萌芽;旺盛;奔流;vt. 使齐平;发红,使发亮;用水冲洗;使激动;vi. 发红,脸红;奔涌;被冲洗;adj. 大量的;齐平的;丰足的,洋溢的;挥霍的

10.sane [seɪn] adj. 健全的;理智的;[临床] 神志正常的

11.downright ['daʊnraɪt] adj. 明白的;直率的;显明的;adv. 完全,彻底;全然

12.seductive [sɪ'dʌktɪv] adj. 有魅力的;性感的;引人注意的

13.reassuringly [,ri:ə'ʃuəriŋli]  adv. 安慰地;鼓励地

14.level-headed ['levl'hedid] adj. 冷静的;清醒的


Many of Canada’s virtues spring from its history and geography and are not readily exportable. It is easier to be relaxed about immigration when your only land border is protected by a wall the size of the United States. Appreciation for the benefits of trade comes more easily to countries next door to big markets. British Brexiteers might justifiably claim that they voted for exactly what Canada already has: control of immigration and the freedom to negotiate trade deals with any country willing to reciprocate.

加拿大所具有的系列优点,其中很多,源于其自身独特的历史背景与地理环境,也因此,可能不会具有广泛的适用性。加拿大陆地接壤的唯一国家是美国,有美国这么大的“一堵墙”在,也就不用忧心移民问题。而加拿大对自由贸易的青睐,自然也有紧靠美国这个大市场的原因。英国脱欧支持者可能会说,之所以选择脱欧,就是为了得到加拿大已所拥有的:对移民的管控,以及与乐意创造双赢的任何国家进行贸易谈判的自由


1.virtue['vɜːtjuː] n. 美德;优点;贞操;功效

2.spring [sprɪŋ] n. 春天;弹簧;泉水;活力;跳跃;adj. 春天的;vi. 生长;涌出;跃出;裂开;vt. 使跳起;使爆炸;突然提出;使弹开

3.readily ['redɪlɪ] adv. 容易地;乐意地;无困难地

4.reciprocate [rɪ'sɪprəkeɪt] vt. 报答;互换;互给;vi. 往复运动;互换;酬答;互给


Despite such luck, Canada suffers from some of the stresses that feed populism in other rich countries. It has experienced a decline of manufacturing jobs, stagnant incomes for most of its citizens and rising inequality. It, too, frets about a shrinking middle class. Canadians worry about Islamist terrorism, though the country has so far been spared a big attack. Some right-of-centre politicians, playing on fears that one will happen, indulge in Trumpian rhetoric. Yet Canada does not seem tempted to shut itself off from the world. What can other Western countries learn from its example?

加拿大尽管得天独厚,但也面临着其他发达国家所面临的滋生民粹的各种问题。在加拿大,制造业就业机会也在减少,多数民众的收入也止步不前,两极分化也有所严重,而且,中产阶层的规模也在缩小,同时,加拿大国民也担心伊斯兰恐怖主义,尽管到目前为止加拿大还未经历过大规模的恐怖袭击。不过,一些中右翼政客,也开始利用人们对可能发生恐怖袭击的畏惧,沉迷于特朗普式的咆哮。但是,目前看来,加拿大还无意把自己隔绝于整个世界。因此,其他西方国家该从加拿大这个模范生身上学到点儿什么呢?


1.fret [fret] vt. 使烦恼;焦急;使磨损;vi. 烦恼;焦急;磨损;n. 烦躁;焦急;磨损

2.indulge [ɪn'dʌldʒ] vt. 满足;纵容;使高兴;使沉迷于;vi. 沉溺;满足;放任

3.rhetoric ['retərɪk] n. 修辞,修辞学;华丽的词藻;adj. 花言巧语的

4.tempted ['temptid] adj. 有兴趣的;v. 诱惑;冒…的险(tempt的过去分词)


First, Canada not only welcomes newcomers but works hard to integrate them. Its charter of rights and freedoms proclaims the country’s “multicultural heritage”. Not every country will fuse diversity and national identity in the same way that Canada does. Indeed, French-speaking Quebec has its own way of interpreting multiculturalism, which gives priority to the province’s distinct culture. But other countries can learn from the spirit of experimentation that Canada brings to helping immigrants find employment and housing. Its system of private sponsorship, in which groups of citizens take responsibility for supporting refugees during their first year, not only helps them adapt but encourages society at large to make them welcome. The UN High Commissioner for Refugees has called on other countries to copy it.

首先,加拿大不仅对移民持欢迎态度,而且还做出努力让移民能融入当地。加拿大的权利和自由宪章,严正宣告了该国的“多元文化传统”。在多元文化与国家认同融合方面,不是所有国家的做法都和加拿大的一样。确实,法语区魁北克就多元文化有它自己的一套诠释方式,也因此赋予了魁北克以独有的文化特征。不过,其他国家依然可从加拿大针对移民就业以及居住等方面所采取的实验模式中汲取经验。加拿大的私人支持体系中,民众团体会在移民到达加拿大的第一年中,担当起为移民提供支持的责任,这样不仅有助于移民尽快适应,而且有助于鼓励整个社会形成欢迎移民的氛围。联合国难民署高级专员就曾呼吁,其他国家应向加拿大学习


1.proclaim [prə'kleɪm] vt. 宣告,公布;声明;表明;赞扬

2.fuse [fjuːz] vi. 融合;熔化,熔融;vt. 使融合;使熔化,使熔融;n. 保险丝,熔线;导火线,雷管


Follow the moose

向加拿大学习

The second lesson is the value of knowing when fiscal austerity does more harm than good. Canada has been managing its public finances conservatively for the past 20 years or so. Now in charge of a sluggish economy, Mr Trudeau can afford to give growth a modest lift by spending extra money on infrastructure. His government has given a tax cut to the middle class and raised rates for the highest earners to help pay for it. These economic policies deserve to “go viral”, the head of the IMF has said. Canada has a further economic lesson to impart in how it protects people hurt by globalisation. Compared with America, its publicly financed health system lessens the terror of losing a job; it also provides more financial support and training to people who do. And its policy of “equalisation” gives provincial and local governments the means to maintain public services at a uniform level across the country.

其次,能认识到什么时候采取财政紧缩措施弊大于利,这点很重要。过去的20年间,加拿大在公共财政方面一直较为保守。而现在,面临经济低迷,总理特鲁多也才能通过加大基础设施开支,来保持像样的经济增长。特鲁多政府也对中产阶层进行了减税,并通过提高富裕阶层的税率来充实国库。国际货币基金组织总裁就曾表示,这样的经济政策值得“大力推广”。针对遭受到全球化影响的群体的保护,加拿大同样值得学习。与美国相比,加拿大的医疗系统由公共财政支持,这样就可减少人们对失业的恐惧。此外,加拿大政府在资金扶持、人员培训方面的支持力度也较大。还有,加拿大实施的“均衡政策”,也给省级和地方政府提供了各种条件措施,从而在公共服务方面实现了全国统一。


1.moose [muːs] n. [脊椎] 驼鹿;麋

2.austerity [ɒ'sterɪtɪ] n. 紧缩;朴素;苦行;严厉

3.modest ['mɒdɪst] adj. 谦虚的,谦逊的;适度的;端庄的;羞怯的

4.go viral 像病毒一样传播开来

5.impart [ɪm'pɑːt] vt. 给予(尤指抽象事物),传授;告知,透露


Perhaps most important, this mixture of policies—liberal on trade and immigration, activist in shoring up growth and protecting globalisation’s losers—is a reminder that the centrist formula still works, if politicians are willing to champion it. Instead of folding in the face of opposition to liberal policies, Mr Trudeau and his ministers have instead made the case for them. Although free trade is not the hot-button issue in Canada that it is in America, they have been tireless in listening to critics and trying to take their concerns into account.

或许,最重要的,就是各方面的政策措施需要优化组合,贸易和移民方面采取自由政策,经济增长方面采取积极政策,对全球化受损者采取保护政策,所有这一切,也就都意味着,中间方案依旧是有效的,只要政治人物愿意且勇于扛起这份担当。在移民和贸易政策方面,特鲁多及其阁员面对反对声音时没有退缩,而是摆事实让他们看、讲道理让他们听。在加拿大,尽管自由贸易问题不像在美国吵得那么火热,但特鲁多政府一直以来都对批评之声洗耳恭听,并在决策时会充分考虑这些批评之声。


1.centrist ['sentrɪst] n. 中立派议员;中间派议员

2.champion ['tʃæmpɪən] n. 冠军;拥护者;战士;vt. 支持;拥护;adj. 优胜的;第一流的

3.fold [fəʊld] vt. 折叠;合拢;抱住;笼罩;n. 折痕;信徒;羊栏;vi. 折叠起来;彻底失败

4.hot button: a subject that is important to people and about which they have strong opinions. Hot button issue is an extremely divisive issue that elicits strong emotions from people. 


Canada is far from perfect. It remains a poorer, less productive and less innovative economy than America’s. While championing freer international trade, Canada has yet to eliminate obstacles to trade among its provinces. For many liberals, Canada’s emphasis on “peace, order and good government”, enshrined in its constitution, is inadequate without an infusion of American individualism. But for now the world owes Canada gratitude for reminding it of what many people are in danger of forgetting: that tolerance and openness are wellsprings of security and prosperity, not threats to them.

不过,加拿大还远未完美。加拿大在人均收入、生产效率、创新能力方面依然比不上美国。一方面,在国际社会,加拿大积极支持自由贸易,而另一方面,在其国内,加拿大各省域之间的贸易壁垒依然还没全部清除。在自由主义者看来,尽管加拿大对列入宪法中的“和平、秩序、善治”一直以来都重视有加,但却少了美国式个体主义,总让人感觉缺点儿什么。不过,在当下,全世界都应感激加拿大,因为,正是加拿大提醒了人们不能忘记:对于社会安全、经济繁荣,包容开放是其源泉,而不是其威胁


1.inadequate [ɪn'ædɪkwət] adj. 不充分的,不适当的

2.infusion [ɪn'fjuːʒ(ə)n] n. 灌输;浸泡;注入物;激励

3.owe [əʊ] vt. 欠;感激;应给予;应该把……归功于;vi. 欠钱

4.gratitude ['grætɪtjuːd] n. 感谢(的心情);感激

5.wellspring ['welsprɪŋ] n. 泉源;水源
 



往期精彩:


普京大帝|《经济学人》:俄罗斯在衰微,俄罗斯是威胁

天下大势|《经济学人》:全球化浪潮浩浩荡荡,顺之者昌,逆之者亡

日本观|《经济学人》:日本社会的婚姻问题,映照独身时代的来临

世界观|《经济学人》:土耳其的命运,全靠夹在美俄欧之间的埃尔多安


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