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国际代孕|《经济学人》:能当父母,是件好事,而非犯罪

2017-05-18 从余启 我与我们的世界 我与我们的世界

欢迎打开“我与我们的世界”,从此,让我们一起“纵览世界之风云变幻、洞察社会之脉搏律动、感受个体之生活命运、挖掘自然之点滴奥妙”。

我与我们的世界,既是一个“奋斗”的世界,也是一个“思考”的世界。奋而不思则罔,思而不奋则殆。这个世界,你大,它就大;你小,它就小。

欢迎通过上方公众号名称打开公众号“查看历史信息”来挖掘往期文章,因为,每期都能让你“走近”不一样的世界、带给你不一样的精彩


本期导读:小小地球上所有物种的繁衍生息,都需要靠一代又一代的传承。物种的繁衍,是生命孕育下代的行为,可分为有性繁殖和无性繁殖。


有性繁殖,是指由亲本产生的有性生殖细胞经过结合,成为受精卵,再由受精卵发育成新的个体的生殖方式,一般繁殖多用此法,不仅有大量种子产生可以繁殖较多的新生命,而且,所有名种名花,也多是通过有性繁殖的改良育种而来。


无性繁殖是指不经生殖细胞结合的繁殖过程,由母体的一部分直接产生子代的繁殖方法。通过无性繁殖所产生的新个体,完全与母体一样而无变化。在林业上常用树木营养器官的一部分或花芽、配子体等材料进行无性繁殖。克隆也属于无性繁殖的一种。


无性繁殖的优点在于,繁殖速度快,且能保持母体的优良特性,其缺点在于不易发生变异,以适应外界环境,通过无性繁殖的新生命,不会与母本有任何区别,除非发生突变。


人类,即是通过有性繁殖方式繁衍生息的物种,至少目前是这样。


The gift of life

生命礼物

Carrying a child for someone else should be celebrated—and paid for

为他人孕育孩子,应获得掌声,还有报酬


Restrictive rules are in neither the surrogate’s interests, nor the baby’s

限制性政策,既不有利于代孕者权益的保护,也对孩子没什么好处


THE earliest known description of surrogacy is an ugly biblical story: in Genesis, the childless Sara sends her husband to bed with her maidservant, Hagar, and takes the child as her own. It is this exploitative version of surrogacy that still shapes attitudes and laws today. Many countries ban it outright, convinced that the surrogate is bound to be harmed, no matter whether she consents. Others allow it, but ban payment. Except in a few places, including Greece, Ukraine and a few American states, the commissioning parents have no legal standing before the birth; even if the child is genetically theirs, the surrogate can change her mind and keep the baby. Several developing countries popular with foreigners in need of a surrogate have started to turn them away.

最早关于代孕的描述,是《圣经》里一个不怎么光彩的故事:创世纪中,不孕的撒拉让丈夫与她的女仆夏甲同床,把夏甲的孩子据为己有。正是这种剥削利用性代孕的描述,在今天,依然影响着人们对代孕的态度以及代孕相关的法律法规。很多国家相信,代孕者必定会遭受伤害,不管她是否同意,因而直接禁止代孕。有些国家尽管允许代孕,却禁止向代孕者支付报酬。除了在诸如希腊、乌克兰以及美国某些州少数地方外,代孕孩子出生前,代孕父母没有任何法律权益,即使代孕孩子从基因方面讲属于代孕父母,但代孕者可改变想法把孩子留给自己。曾对寻求代孕者的外国人持友好态度的几个发展中国家,现在也开始一百八十度大转弯。


These restrictions are harmful. By pushing surrogacy to the legal fringes, they make it both more dangerous and more costly, and create legal uncertainty for all, especially the newborn baby who may be deemed parentless and taken into care. Instead, giving the gift of parenthood to those who cannot have it should be celebrated—and regulated sensibly.

这些限制性政策措施,有百害而无一利。把代孕推向法律边缘,会让代孕风险和成本更高,也会给代孕所有相关方造成法律不确定性,特别是新生的孩子,可能会被认定为孤儿,然后被送进福利院。让想当却不能当父母的人,通过代孕当上父母,应值得庆贺,并为之建立合情合理的相关规制。


Getting surrogacy right matters more than ever, since demand is rising. That is partly because fewer children are available for adoption, and partly because ideas about what constitutes a family have become more liberal. Surrogates used to be sought out only by heterosexual couples, and only when the woman had a medical problem that meant she could not carry a baby. But the spread of gay marriage has been followed by a rise in male couples turning to surrogates to complete their newly recognised families. And just as more women are becoming single parents with the help of sperm donation, more men are seeking to do so through surrogates.

让代孕走上正道,任务紧迫,因为代孕需求正在攀升。一方面是因为,能够被收养的孩子越来越少,另一方面是因为,对于“何为家庭”这个问题,人们的观念已越来越开放、多元。以往,有代孕需求的人,通常是女性一方因身体原因导致不孕的异性夫妇。不过现在,同性婚姻的蔓延使得越来越多的同性伴侣开始通过代孕来组建属于自己的家庭。与此同时,随着越来越多的女性通过捐赠的精子受孕而拥有自己的孩子来创建单亲家庭,越来越多的男性也开始通过代孕来创建家庭。


The modern version of surrogacy is nothing like the tale of Sara and Hagar. Nowadays, surrogates rarely carry babies who are genetically related to them, instead using embryos created in vitro with eggs and sperm from the commissioning parents, or from donors. They almost never change their minds about handing over the baby. On the rare occasions that a deal fails, it is because the commissioning parents pull out.

现在的代孕,已与撒拉和夏甲那个故事中的代孕完全不同。目前,代孕者与所怀孩子几乎都没有基因关系,而是把代孕父母或捐赠者的卵子和精子在体外结合而成的受精卵植入自己子宫。代孕者也几乎都不会有把孩子占为己有的想法。极少情况下,代孕协议会流产,不过大多是因为代孕父母的原因。


A modern surrogacy law should recognise those intending to form a family as the legal parents. To protect the surrogate, it should demand that she obtain a doctor’s all-clear and enjoy good medical care. And to avoid disputes, both parties should sign a detailed contract that can be enforced in the courts, setting out in advance what they will do if the fetus is disabled, the surrogate falls ill or the commissioning parents break up.

关于代孕问题,急需有一套现代性的法律法规,对有意组建家庭的人,给予相关法律支持。为保护代孕者权益,应该规定,代孕者须通过医生的许可,并获得良好的医疗护理。为避免纠纷,代孕双方应签订一份具有可行性的详细协议,事先把诸如胚胎流产、代孕者生病或代孕父母离异等问题说清楚。


Emotional labour

代孕是个伟大的工作


Laws should also let the surrogate be paid. Women who become surrogates generally take great satisfaction in helping someone become a parent. But plenty of jobs offer rewards beyond money, and no one suggests they should therefore be done for nothing. The fact that a surrogate in India or Nepal can earn the equivalent of ten years’ wages by carrying a child for a rich foreigner is a consequence of global inequality, not its cause. Banning commercial surrogacy will not change that.

代孕相关法律,还应赋予代孕者获得报酬的权利。通常情况下,代孕者都会因帮助他人实现做父母的梦想而感到极大满足感。而且,很多工作的回报,不仅仅是金钱,更何况,没人觉得,辛辛苦苦代孕,可以一分钱不要。印度或尼泊尔的代孕者,为富裕的外国人代孕一个孩子所获得的报酬,可相当于十年的工资,这样的现实,不是全球不平等的结果,而是其原因。对商业性代孕予以禁止,解决不了全球不平等问题。


Better to regulate it properly, and insist that parents returning home with a child born to a surrogate abroad can prove that their babies have been obtained legally and fairly. Becoming a parent should be a joy, not an offence.

更好的做法是,对代孕进行适当的规制,并让通过国外代孕拥有孩子的父母回到家时,能让他们证明,获得孩子的途径是合法的,而且是公平的。成为父母,应是件高兴的事儿,而非一种犯罪。


百度百科“代孕”词条


谷歌关键词“代孕”搜索结果


百度关键词“代孕”搜索结果



往期精彩:


造人那点事儿|《经济学人》:造人途径有N种,该选哪一种?

生命之谜|施一公:生命之源或缘于35亿年前的一团量子纠缠,人类认知或囿于自身生命的物质形式局限

一带一路|《中印关系》:北京在扬眉吐气,新德里在生闷气

驻足人生|《幽灵岛》:你存在的意义,完全由你自己定义

诗图一家|《命运遐想》:命里有时终须有,命里无时莫强求

大英帝国|《全球脑库》:脱欧后退守英伦小岛,该如何生存?


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