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绿色中国|《经济学人》:有些污浊看得见,有些污浊看不见

2017-06-16 从余启 我与我们的世界 我与我们的世界

欢迎打开“我与我们的世界”,从此,让我们一起“纵览世界之风云变幻、洞察社会之脉搏律动、感受个体之生活命运、挖掘自然之点滴奥妙”。

我与我们的世界,既是一个“奋斗”的世界,也是一个“思考”的世界。奋而不思则罔,思而不奋则殆。这个世界,你大,它就大;你小,它就小。

欢迎通过上方公众号名称打开公众号“查看历史信息”来挖掘往期文章,因为,每期都能让你“走近”不一样的世界、带给你不一样的精彩


本期导读:“污浊”这个汉语词汇,根据《汉典》的释义,大概有四种含义:一是dirty,不干净的东西;二是muddy,混浊的;三是foul,水、空气等不洁净,空气污浊;四是filthy,肮脏的,显得肮脏的或内容肮脏的。


根据《國語辭典》的释义,“汙濁”(污浊)主要是用来形容物体或水域被严重地污染,如污泥浊水。具体来看有三种含义:一是混浊、不干净,如污浊的死水,室内空气污浊;二是卑劣鄙陋,如言行污浊、污浊的社会环境;三是指腐朽没落的东西,如清除吸毒、嫖娼、赌博等一切污浊。


污浊最早的出处见于宋·周密《癸辛杂识前集·闽鄞二庙》:“既而得泉,皆污浊不堪用。”以及 宋·苏辙《吴道子画四真君》诗:“坐令世俗士,自慙污浊身。”


Soil pollution in China

中国的土壤污染

Buried poison

地下之毒

China’s rockiest environmental problem: its soil. Cleaning filthy soil is much harder than cleaning foul air.

对中国来说,难啃的问题有很多,环境污染是其中之一,而环境污染中最难啃的,非土壤污染莫属。治理土壤污染,要比治理空气污染难得多。

China would be a more convincing green champion if it did not treat pollution data as state secrets.

若不把污染数据列为国家机密,中国将更易让其他国家相信,它对实现绿色发展的意志力。


:意志力,人类的一种精神。意志力是心理学中的一个概念,是指一个人自觉地确定目的,并根据目的来支配、调节自己的行动,克服各种困难,从而实现目的的品质。当人们善于运用这一有益的力量时,就会产生决心,人有决心就说明意志力在起作用。人的心理功能或身体器官对决心的服从,说明了意志力存在巨大力量。


AFTER Donald Trump said on June 1st that America would pull out of the Paris accord on climate change, many people congratulated China for sticking with it. With America on the sidelines, some see China as the leader of the fight against global warming—an idea that the Chinese Communist Party is eager to promote. Although it is the world’s largest emitter of carbon dioxide, China has made a determined effort to cut back. It has burned less coal in each of the past three years. In 2016 it installed more wind-power capacity than any other country; three times as much as the runner-up, America. Some analysts believe that China’s CO2 emissions may peak in 2025, five years earlier than the goal it set in Paris. Yet it is premature to call China a champion of greenery.

特朗普6月1日表示,美国将退出气候变化《巴黎协定》,而中国表示将继续履行《巴黎协定》承诺,这让很多人为中国叫好。美国既然已自己主动靠边站了,因而有些人自然就把中国视为应对全球气候变化的领导者,而这一点,也是中国急切想要的。目前,中国已是全球碳排放最大的国家,而且也已下定决心做出努力进行减排。过去三年间,中国的煤炭消费量逐年都在减少。2016年,中国的风电装机容量全球最大,三倍于排名第二的美国。分析人士认为,中国的碳排放有望于2025年达到峰值,这比巴黎协定中所承诺的目标要早五年。不过,现在就把中国称为“绿色中国”,还为时尚早。


Its air and water are notoriously foul. Less noticed, but just as alarming, much of its soil is poisoned, too. As our briefing explains the scale of the problem is hard to gauge, largely because China’s government is so opaque. A soil survey conducted between 2006 and 2011 was at first classified as secret. Many of its findings are still not public, but one grim statistic has emerged: one-fifth of Chinese farmland contains higher-than-permitted levels of pollutants, some of which threaten food safety. This is bad news for a country that has 18% of the world’s population but only 7% of its arable land. And it will be exceptionally costly and difficult to clean up. Soil just sits there, meaning that toxins linger for centuries.


Public alarm is growing. For evidence, ask any Chinese about “cadmium rice”, which contains a heavy metal that, if ingested, can eventually cause kidney failure, lung disease and bone damage. Leaks from factories sometimes seep into paddy fields, and thence into rice-bowls. In 2013 the nation was horrified by a report that in Guangzhou, a southern city, nearly half of the rice tested by inspectors in restaurants and canteens was laced with cadmium. The story aroused a new awareness among citizens: that soil pollution was not just a local problem in China, manifest here and there in the high mortality of “cancer villages”, but a national threat, and that the government had been sparing with the truth about it.


The government is more forthcoming about air and water pollution. That is because these forms are usually more visible, making them harder to conceal. But it was not until 2013, after years of mounting public anger, that the government began to release real-time data for its biggest cities on levels of PM2.5, the finest of airborne poisons that lodge deepest in the lungs. A documentary on China’s air pollution, released in 2015 by a Chinese journalist, was scrubbed by censors from Chinese websites after it attracted more than 200m views.


Blue-sky thinking

蓝天思维(蓝天易想却难见)


Officials are keenly aware of the public’s anxieties. In 2014 the prime minister, Li Keqiang, promised that he would “resolutely declare war” on pollution. Last year the government unveiled an almost impossibly ambitious plan to make 90% of polluted soil usable by the end of the decade. In March Mr Li promised to “make our skies blue again”; PM2.5 levels would fall “markedly” this year, he said.


All this is welcome, but if China is to lead the world in the creation of a greener planet it must do more than build wind farms and erect solar panels. It must also come clean about the full extent of the problems it faces, and then demand no less from other countries. If the Paris accord is to succeed, transparency will be crucial—because pledges that cannot be verified are of little use in binding countries to a common cause.


One way for China to accomplish this would be for it to go beyond the letter of the Paris accord and allow international monitoring of its carbon emissions. At the very least Chinese officials should no longer remain so secretive about other kinds of pollution that pose an immediate threat to the lives of their own compatriots. Openness would enable the Chinese to understand the risks they face, and to hold officials to account for failing to stop polluters from poisoning them. Sunlight—something our readers in Beijing may only dimly remember—is the best anti-pollutant.



往期精彩:


旧文重发|《气候变化》:有没有美国都一样,地球都会照样转

存活之本|《经济学人》:海洋哺育了人类,人类却糟蹋了海洋

俄欧情怨|《欧洲歌唱大赛》:去年激情满满,今年柔情绵绵

新书速递|《男性之隐》:一百位男性受访者倾吐心声

中国故事|《世纪之变》:百年光影,忽闪而过,尽在不言

诗图一家|《在人间》:代际更替,循环往复,永无止境


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