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中英对照|《BBC》:禁变性人服役牵出美军巨额伟哥开支

2017-07-28 从余启 我与我们的世界 我与我们的世界

欢迎打开“我与我们的世界”,从此,让我们一起“纵览世界之风云变幻、洞察社会之脉搏律动、感受个体之生活命运、挖掘自然之点滴奥妙”。

我与我们的世界,既是一个“奋斗”的世界,也是一个“思考”的世界。奋而不思则罔,思而不奋则殆。这个世界,你大,它就大;你小,它就小。

欢迎通过上方公众号名称打开公众号“查看历史信息”来挖掘往期文章,因为,每期都能让你“走近”不一样的世界、带给你不一样的精彩


本期导读:美国总统特朗普7月26日连发推文称,美国军队中不允许任何变性人服役,不论是担任何种职务或执行何种任务,并强调,此决定是希望帮助美国取得全面胜利,不容许变性人成为美军的负累。特朗普的该项决定遭到了包括两党议员、LGBT团体以及美国明星等社会各界的痛批。



Why does the US military buy so much Viagra?

美军为啥子要买辣末多伟哥?


Amid the fall-out from US President Donald Trump's announcement on Twitter that transgender people will not be able to serve in the US military, one statistic has been frequently raised to draw attention to the comparatively small estimated costs of transgender healthcare.

美国总统特朗普在推特上称,禁止变性人在美国军队中服役,一石激起千层浪,其中,令人意想不到的一浪是,与美国军队中服役的变性人所带来的健康医疗成本相比,成本更高的另一份统计数据引起了人们的关注。


It refers to the amount the Pentagon spends on erectile dysfunction medication annually: about $84m (£63m), according to the Military Times newspaper.

据《军事时报》报道,五角大楼每年在勃起功能障碍医药费用方面的支出高达8400万美元。


In contrast, the Rand Corporation think tank estimated last year that gender transition-related health care costs for transgender personnel would increase the military's active duty health budget by $8.4m per year at the most.

与之相比,根据智库兰德公司去年的估计,美国军队中服役的变性军人在变性相关的健康护理成本,最高时能让美军现役军人年度健康预算开支提高840万美元。


But why does the US defence department spend so much on erectile dysfunction drugs?

但是,美国国防部为啥子在勃起功能障碍药物方面花费这么多?


Older retirees

年纪大的退役军人


First, it is worth pointing out that the Military Times' February 2015 report based its figure on 2014 data from the Defense Health Agency.

首先,值得指出的一点是,《军事时报》2015年2月份的报告,是基于美国国防健康署公布的2014年统计数据。


The spend of $84.2m was for that year, but the newspaper also reported that $294m had been spent on Viagra, Cialis and other such medications since 2011.

当年开支为8420万美元,不过,《军事时报》的报告也显示,2011年以来,在伟哥、西力士以及其他同类药物方面的开支已累计高达29400万美元。


It pointed out that this cost the equivalent of more than a few fighter jets.

该报告指出,这样高的支出,足以购买几架战斗机。


In 2014, some 1.18 million prescriptions were filled, mostly for Viagra. But who were they for? The answer goes some way in explaining the massive spend.

2014年,开具的药方共约有118万份,其中大多是伟哥。但是,这些伟哥是给谁用的呢?这个问题的答案,或许在一定程度上能说明巨额开支的原因。



It is true that some of the erectile dysfunction medication went to active-duty personnel.

美国军队所采购的勃起功能障碍药物,有些确实给现役军人使用。


But the vast majority went to other groups eligible, including millions of military retirees and their family members. In fact, around 10 million people in total are estimated to be covered by the Pentagon's healthcare system, which cost $52bn in 2012.

不过,多数药物却被其他有资格享受美军健康福利的群体所使用了,包括数百万的退役军人以及他们的家人。实际上,五角大楼的健康福利体系所涵盖的人员总数约有1000万,2012年的开支高达520亿美元。


It is well known that erectile dysfunction is more common among older men - which would explain a hefty bill for retired service members.

众所周知,勃起功能障碍在老年男性群体中更为常见,这就在一定程度上解释了退役美军的这份账单为什么会如此之高。


In fact, less than 10% of the prescriptions were for active duty personnel, according to the Military Times.

据《军事时报》报道,实际上,所开具的全部药方中,只有不到10%开给了现役军人。


Still, erectile dysfunction among those currently serving in the US military has been increasing since the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan began.

不过,自伊拉克和阿富汗战争开始以来,美国现役军人中,患有勃起功能障碍的人数一直在上升。


'Psychological causes'

“心理原因”


A 2014 study by the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch (AFHSB) found that 100,248 cases of erectile dysfunction were diagnosed among active service members between 2004 and 2013, with "annual incidence rates" more than doubling in that time period.

美国武装力量健康监控署(AFHSB)2014年发布的一份研究报告显示,2004至2013年间,现役军人中勃起功能障碍确诊100248病例,在该期间,“每年病例增速”都不止翻倍。


Nearly half of all the cases were due to psychological causes, according to the study.

该研究报告还显示,所有病例中,近一半是由心理原因导致。



A study published in the Journal of Sexual Medicine in 2015 found that male veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were "significantly more likely than their civilian counterparts to report erectile dysfunction or other sexual problems", according to the US Department of Veterans Affairs.

《性医学期刊》2015年刊发的一份研究报告显示,美国退役军人事务部发现,患有创伤后应激障碍(PTSD)的美军男性退役军人, “与社会上其他同龄男性相比,极易产生勃起功能障碍或其他性生理问题”。


One study cited found that 85% of male combat veterans with PTSD report erectile dysfunction, nearly four times the rate among those returning from combat who are not diagnosed with a mental health disorder.

研究中引用的一份报告显示,患有创伤后应激障碍的战地退役男性美军中,有85%的人患有勃起功能障碍,比其他没有心理健康问题的战地退役军人的患病率高近四倍。


In 2008, the Rand Corporation reported that one in five US veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan were suffering from PTSD or major depression.

2008年,据兰德公司报告,伊拉克和阿富汗战争退役军人中,有五分之一的人患有创伤后应激障碍或重症抑郁。


However, a key statistic buried in the AFHSB study of active duty personnel between 2004 and 2013 suggests one should be cautious of reading too much into the links between America's recent wars, PTSD and erectile dysfunction in relation to the military's massive spend on Viagra.

不过,美国武装力量健康监控署对2004至2013年间现役美军的研究报告中有一重要统计数据也意味着,对于美国近年发动的战争、创伤后应激障碍、勃起功能障碍等因素与美国军方在伟哥药物方面的巨额开支之间的联系,人们不应过度解读。


Personnel who had never been deployed were actually more likely to suffer from erectile dysfunction than their counterparts who had been.

从没参战过的美军士兵,实际上比参战过的美军士兵,更可能遭受勃起功能障碍的困扰。


Finally, erectile dysfunction is linked to common conditions, including heart disease, high blood pressure, and diabetes.

而且,勃起功能障碍与很多普通病症有关,包括心脏病、高血压以及糖尿病等。


In 2007, it was estimated that the prevalence of erectile dysfunction among US men was 18%.

2007年,据有关估计数据,美国男性中,勃起功能障碍的患病率为18%。


In summary: it is a common condition, and the US military pays for the healthcare of millions of men, meaning it spends a lot on Viagra and other such drugs.

总的来说,勃起功能障碍是个常见病症,美国军方为几百万的美国男性提供健康福利,这也就意味着,在伟哥及其他此类药物方面的开支也就会较大。


往期精彩:


新书速递|《经济学人》:中美之间,必有一战?

新书速递|《男性之隐》:一百位男性受访者倾吐心声

遥望世界2050|《普华永道》:中国和印度,将领跑全球

中美关系|《外媒》:中国邀请特朗普女儿、女婿访华

中国故事|《世纪之变》:百年光影,忽闪而过,尽在不言

中国2030|《经济学人智库》:中产崛起,消费升级,你将在哪一级?

诗图一家|《行与思》:内在心境,外在环境,总是变幻不定

面具人生|《认识自己》:戴有多少副面具,就有多少个人生


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