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中国往事|《CNN》:南京长江大桥的故事,波澜又壮阔

2017-08-04 从余启 我与我们的世界 我与我们的世界

欢迎打开“我与我们的世界”,从此,让我们一起“纵览世界之风云变幻、洞察社会之脉搏律动、感受个体之生活命运、挖掘自然之点滴奥妙”。

我与我们的世界,既是一个“奋斗”的世界,也是一个“思考”的世界。奋而不思则罔,思而不奋则殆。这个世界,你大,它就大;你小,它就小。

欢迎通过上方公众号名称打开公众号“查看历史信息”来挖掘往期文章,因为,每期都能让你“走近”不一样的世界、带给你不一样的精彩


本期导读历史,一般指人类社会历史,记载和解释一系列人类活动进程的历史事件,多数时候也是对当下时代的映射。历史的问题在于不断发现真的过去,在于用材料说话。历史是延伸的,是文化的传承、积累和扩展,是人类文明的轨迹。


记忆,是人脑对经验过事物的识记、保持、再现或再认,是进行思维、想象等高级心理活动的基础。人类记忆与大脑海马结构、大脑内部的化学成分变化有关。记忆联结着人的心理活动,是人们学习、工作和生活的基本机能。


记忆在社会界、文化界和学术界有着不可或缺的作用,对历史编纂产生过巨大影响。不过记忆转化为历史的过程颇为不易,从历史记忆的角度反思历史,深入探讨人类经过的客观历史,对历史与记忆进行思考与解释,需要靠深邃的反思精神。



How the Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge changed China forever

南京长江大桥曾如何改变中国



China may be home to both the longest and highest bridges in the world, but neither is as pioneering as the Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge.

中国或许既有世界上最长的大桥,也有全世界最高的大桥,不过,不管最长的有多长,最高的有多高,都无法在开创性意义方面,与南京长江大桥相媲美。


Built during China's tumultuous Cultural Revolution, the double-decked bridge was considered groundbreaking when it was unveiled in 1968. But more importantly to some, it was also the first modern bridge to be designed and built by China without help from foreign architects.

南京长江大桥建于波澜壮阔的文革时代,双层结构,1968年投入使用,被视为一项深具开创性的工程。更重要的是,对于很多人来说,南京长江大桥是中国当代史上没有外国人员参与、完全由中国自己设计、建造的第一座大桥。



As major repairs get underway ahead of next year's 50th anniversary, the bridge remains a source of pride in Nanjing, China's former capital. A project commissioned by railway officials hopes to secure the bridge's legacy by documenting its history, according to the initiative's head Lu Andong, a professor at Nanjing University's School of Architecture and Urban Planning.

明年将要迎来50周年之际,南京长江大桥目前正在维护修缮。时至今日,南京长江大桥依然是曾为中国首都的南京的骄傲。受铁路部门委托并由南京大学建筑与城市规划学院教授鲁安东牵头的一个项目正在实施,旨在通过整理该大桥的历史让其辉煌永留史册。


"The bridge was so important, and it's undoubtedly a symbol of the city," he said. "It is being repaired for transportation and safety purposes, but I would relish the chance to transform the bridge's tower and the affiliated park into places of memory."

鲁教授说到,“这座大桥如此重要,毫无疑问,它是这座城市的一个象征”,“维护修缮主要是为了交通和安全,不过,我想利用这次机会,让大桥的塔楼以及附近的绿地,变成历史记忆之地。”


Made in China

中国制造

China had initially hoped to build Nanjing's bridge with its communist allies, the USSR. Having already helped construct a crossing at Wuhan (about 280 miles up the river), the Soviets once again offered technical assistance. But soon after construction began in 1960, relations between the two nations soured.

最初,中国想要与苏联一起修建南京长江大桥,苏联也提供了技术支持,之前苏联就已帮助中国修建了南京上游相距280英里远的武汉长江大桥。不过,1960年施工开始没多久,中苏关系就逐渐恶化。


Soviet experts withdrew from the project ahead of the Sino-Soviet split -- the breakdown of relations between the world's largest communist powers from 1960. The bridge was nonetheless completed eight years later. China considered the accomplishment to be a major feat of engineering -- and a propaganda victory.

1960年后中苏彻底闹翻之前,苏联专家就撤走了。不过,八年后,大桥还是建好了。中国将大桥完工视为一项重大工程壮举,并把它作为一种宣传的力量。


At over 5,000 feet long, the bridge carries both cars and trains. Its upper deck is a four-lane highway with sidewalks, while the railway tracks are now part of the Beijing-Shanghai train route.

南京长江大桥长度超过5000英尺,既有汽车通行的公路,也有火车通行的铁路。上层是四车道公路,两边有人行走道,下层是铁路,北京上海之间的火车就经过这里。


"Everybody loves the bridge," said Wang Shiqing, a longtime Nanjing resident who has collected over 1,000 pieces of Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge memorabilia. "It's a source of pride, especially for local Nanjing people," he says.

搜集了1000多件南京长江大桥纪念物的南京当地居民王世清说,“每个人,都喜欢这座大桥”,“它是一种骄傲,特别是对于南京本地的人来说。”


New beginnings

开启新时代

As with other notable bridges -- like San Francisco's Golden Gate -- the Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge has become a popular suicide spot. However, for Nanjing's residents, it is best known for transforming life in the city.

与其他诸如旧金山的金门大桥等很多著名大桥一样,南京长江大桥也是一个受自杀者们青睐的地方。不过,对于南京市民来说,该大桥最为重要的一点是,它改变了这座城市的生活。


Before the bridge was built, people and goods could only cross the river by ferry. Trains passing through the city would have to be disassembled and loaded onto boats in order to continue their journey.

大桥建成前,两岸的人员及货物要到对岸,只能通过轮渡。火车要过江,就先得一节一节拆开,装上船,然后再到对岸。


Upon its completion, the bridge changed the lives of the city's residents." In terms of the function, it made people's lives so much easier," said Wang, who was born the same year the bridge was opened. "It reduced the river crossing time and served as the main artery for north-south transportation."

大桥完工后,马上就改变了南京市民的生活。大桥投入使用那年出生的王世清说,“从功能角度讲,大桥给人们的生活带来了方便”,“既减少了过江的时间,也成为南北交通的大动脉。”


The bridge united visual expressions of technology and progress, according to Lu.

鲁教授表示,该大桥是一种集合了技术与进步两个方面的视觉表达或视觉展现。


"It is not just infrastructure but a piece of architecture," he said. "The bridge's form expressed speed, penetration and force-flow -- similar to what was seen in Italian futurism. The form of the bridge intends to express an inner flow of forces, as if the structure is merely a pipe of energy."

鲁教授说,“它不仅是一项基础设施,同时也是一座建筑物”,“该大桥的外形,有一种速度感、穿透感和力量流动感,与意大利未来主义的某些东西有些相像。该大桥的外形,表达了一种内在力量的流动,就如结构是能量的一种表现形式一样。”


But on the ground, the spatial composition of the bridge's towers resorted to traditional architectural language: central access, a processional route and a podium.

不过,现场看的话,南京长江大桥的塔楼空间构造,采用的却是传统的建筑语言风格:圈层核心性、等级序列性,以及展演中心性。


"This design became a canonical case of Chinese modern architecture and was extremely important. This formula had enduring impact."

“这种设计风格,已成为中国现代建筑的某种模板,而且非常重要,有着深远的影响。”


A 'pop icon of modernity'

“中国现代化的标志”

As well as sculptures of peasants, workers and soldiers, the Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge also features Mao Zedong quotes and a 230-foot statue of the former leader.

南京长江大桥上,不仅有农民、工人、解放军的塑像,而且也刻有毛泽东的语录,还有一尊230英尺高的毛泽东塑像。


"The red flags and magnolia decorations are very Chinese," Wang said, referring to the three flag-shaped sculptures found at the top of the bridge's towers.

王世清指着大桥塔楼顶上三个旗帜形状的雕塑说,“那些红旗及周边装饰,都非常具有中国味道。”


This particular design reflects the "Three Red Banners" -- a major propaganda campaign during the Cultural Revolution. The "banners" represented ideologies that called for the construction of a socialist state in China.

这些比较特别的设计,源于文革期间的一个重要的宣传口号,即“三面红旗”(译者注:總路線、 大躍進、人民公社)。“三面红旗”的口号,反映了当时建设中国社会主义政权的意识形态。



The bridge often appeared in propaganda posters, which were keen to imply that the structure represented a "great victory of Mao Zedong Thought" (the political theory known outside China as "Maoism"). One such poster featured a quote from Mao: "Chinese people have drive and strength -- we have to reach and overtake levels of advancement across the world."

南京长江大桥经常出现在一些宣传海报中,着重于宣传大桥代表着“毛泽东思想的伟大胜利”(毛泽东思想是一种政治思想理论,在中国国外被称为“毛主义”)。有张海报就引用了毛泽东的一句话:“中国人民有志气,有能力,一定要在不远的将来,赶上和超过世界先进水平。”



Erected during a turbulent time in China's history, the bridge had far-reaching cultural impact, according to Lu.

鲁教授表示,南京长江大桥建造于中国历史上的动荡年代,因此在文化意义上,也就有着深远的影响。


"This bridge is one of the most recognized achievements of the Cultural Revolution era," he said. "It is both a political monument and a symbol of technological and historical success. Its image appeared on cups, pencils, shoes, mirrors, cigarettes and bicycles nationwide -- the bridge became a pop icon of modernity."

鲁教授说,“该大桥是文革时代最重要、最具代表性的成就之一”,“它既是政治意义上的一座纪念物,也是技术和历史进步的一种象征。该大桥的形象,曾出现在茶杯上、铅笔上、鞋子上、镜子上、香烟上、自行车上,全国上下,到处都是,成为了中国现代化的一个标志。” 


The legacy of the bridge also lives on through the people who were named after it. According to Wang, many people in Nanjing named their firstborns Chang Jiang (Chinese for "Yangtze") and their second Da Qiao (which means "big bridge").

该大桥的影响,也能从某些人以该大桥起名这点上得到印证。据王世清讲,那个年代,南京有很多人,会把他们的第一个孩子起名为“长江”,把第二个孩子起名为“大桥”。


Restoring former glories

让历史荣光重现

In April 2016 the National Development and Reform Commission, China's state planning body, approved a 27-month program of repairs to the bridge. According to a government report, "safety and durability risks" were key factors in the decision.

2016年4月,国家发改委批准了一个为期长达27个月的南京长江大桥维护修缮项目。据政府方面消息说,提高大桥的“安全和坚固”程度,是决定对其进行维护修缮的关键因素。


But the structure will be getting a facelift too. A $160.7 million (RMB 1.09 billion) investment will be used to restore some of the iconic statues, including those found on nearby river banks. Sculptures on the bridge will be reinforced, with handrails and piers also undergoing renovations.

与此同时,大桥当然也会来次“全新整容”。用于桥上及附近江边各种象征性雕塑修缮的投资,将高达10.9亿人民币。桥上雕塑会进行加固,栏杆及桥墩也会进行翻新。


With younger generations less aware of the bridge's historical significance, Lu hopes that the renovations will restore not only the bridge, but the city's interest in it.

鉴于年轻一代已不太知道南京长江大桥所具有的历史重要性,鲁教授希望,这次翻新,不仅是对大桥进行翻新,也能让南京人对大桥的认识进行翻新。


"The older generation obviously takes more pride in the bridge," he said. "It is very important to re-access the memory of the bridge in a creative way, to allow people of all ages to experience and understand the memories of it.

鲁教授说,“很明显,老一代人更为南京长江大桥感到骄傲”,“用一种创新性的方式,让南京长江大桥的历史记忆重现,让所有年龄段的人,都能感受到它的历史,明白它的历史,这一点,非常重要。”


往期精彩:


中国模式|《圣谕广训》:一切“真”历史,都是当代史

新书速递|《经济学人》:历史是一个姑娘,每人都能是化妆师

中印关系|《经济学人》:中印互为近邻,会否唇齿相依?

人口问题|《经济学人》:人,一定要结婚,一定要要孩子?

中国故事|《世纪之变》:百年光影,忽闪而过,尽在不言

诗图一家|《行与思》:内在心境,外在环境,总是变幻不定

中国改革进程|《经济学人》:进一步退两步VS退一步进两步

中国VS欧洲|《经济学人》:先进抑或落后,在于解构和建构

遥望世界2050|《普华永道》:中国和印度,将领跑全球

中国式神话|《儒家神话》:神话,在传说中,在古籍里,也在你我身边


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