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直播世界|《新兴产业》:小小直播摄像头,窥尽人性大世界

2017-08-21 从余启 我与我们的世界 我与我们的世界

欢迎打开“我与我们的世界”,从此,让我们一起“纵览世界之风云变幻、洞察社会之脉搏律动、感受个体之生活命运、挖掘自然之点滴奥妙”。

我与我们的世界,既是一个“奋斗”的世界,也是一个“思考”的世界。奋而不思则罔,思而不奋则殆。这个世界,你大,它就大;你小,它就小。

欢迎通过上方公众号名称打开公众号“查看历史信息”来挖掘往期文章,因为,每期都能让你“走近”不一样的世界、带给你不一样的精彩


本期导读:提起网络直播大家都很熟悉,这一新兴产业可以说是目前最热门火爆的互联网热点之一。网络直播从一个冰冷的手机应用,变为充斥全球各地人们休闲时光的热门话题。


网络直播是一种具有实时性、互动性的互联网内容传播形式。不同于传统的文字、图片、视频等传播形式,网络直播能将用户与直播内容紧密地交互在一起。


随着该行业的发展,目前,不仅是主播们从逼仄狭小的直播间走上大雅之堂,成为各个发布会不可或缺的角色。而且,资本市场对网络直播的态度也风起云涌,从最初怀疑观望到现在执着疯狂。


据有关方面研究预测,到2020年网络直播市场规模将达到600亿,有研究甚至认为2020年网络直播及周边行业将撬动千亿级的资本规模。


从某种程度上讲,直播行业正在改变着人们的生活。越多越多的人群涌入网络直播行业,不过,网络直播快速发展也带来了很多争议性议题,未来直播行业的发展趋势,必然是充满机遇的同时,也充满挑战



Cam-girls: Inside the Romanian sexcam industry

直播女孩:走进罗马尼亚网络直播行业



Interactive webcamming is the fastest-growing sector of the global pornography business. In Romania, thousands of women work as "cam-girls" from studios and from home. It is a 24/7 market, the majority of clients logging in from North America and Western Europe.

网络互动直播行业,堪称全球增长最快的行业之一。在罗马尼亚,成千上万的女性在工作室或自己家里,靠做“直播女孩”营生。这是一个每周七天每天24小时的全天候市场,客人大多来自北美或西欧。


In the heart of Bucharest on the pavement outside a tall apartment building a group of young women smoke, talk and laugh. It is an unremarkable scene. Except that in the bright morning sunlight, their heavy makeup, sky-high heels and shiny, revealing clothes contrast with the sensible, summer dress of passers-by.

罗马尼亚首都布加勒斯特市中心,一栋高层公寓楼外的人行道上,一群年轻女性抽着烟、聊着天,说说笑笑,这种场景并不稀奇,不过,在早上阳光闪闪的照射下,她们的浓妆艳抹、超高的鞋跟、袒胸露肩的亮艳着装,与其他路人夏季普通的着装,却形成了鲜明的对比。


Inside the building, Studio 20 occupies the first and second floors. Forty rooms open off pristine, white corridors, their walls adorned with pictures of women in states of glamorous undress. A closed door means business. Inside that room a woman is live and direct via webcam with international clients - and as long as she is alone in the room, it is entirely legal. In this world of virtual relationships and cybersex, those in front of the camera are "models" and the men who watch are "members".

那栋公寓楼内,二层和三层是“20号工作室”,共有四十个房间,装修质朴,白色长廊,墙上装饰着迷人的女性胴体画像。门关着,就意味着里面有人在工作。房间内,一位女性会亲自通过网络视频与国际客户直播互动,而且,只要她自己一个人在房间,就完全合法。在这个由虚拟关系构成的网络世界,坐在摄像头前的,被称作“模特”,而欣赏她们的男性,则被称作“会员”。



Lana works in Room 8. It is dominated by a circular bed with cushions. There is a wardrobe containing some of her clothes.

拉娜在8号房间上班。房间里放着一个圆形大床,几乎占满了整个房间,床上还有几个靠枕,另外,还有一个衣柜,拉娜的一些衣服就放在里面。


"I usually go for dresses, lingerie, or leather," she says.

拉娜说:“我通常会穿裙子或性感内衣,或皮革装。”


In a corner of the room there is a large computer screen, an expensive camera and behind them, professional photographers' lights. Dozens of pairs of eyes may view Lana in her room online in real time via dedicated adult websites. But she does not make any money until a member asks her to "go private" in a one-to-one webcam session.

房间的角落里,有一个大尺寸的电脑显示屏,以及一部昂贵的视频摄像头,后面,则打着专业水准的摄像灯光。房间中的拉娜,会有几十双眼睛通过专门的成人网站在线实时看到。不过,只这样拉娜还挣不到钱,只有当有“会员”邀请拉娜进行一对一“私聊”时,才会有钱。



Working an eight-hour day, she earns close to 4,000 euros (£3,600) per month - nearly 10 times the Romanian average wage. As Lana's employer, Studio 20 also makes 4,000 euros per month from her online sessions. And at the top of the video chat money-making pyramid, LiveJasmin - the online cam site that streams Studio 20's content and is responsible for collecting payment from the credit cards of clients - takes double that: 8,000 euros.

拉娜每天工作八小时,每月可赚近4000欧元,这比罗马尼亚平均薪资高近10倍。拉娜工作的公司“20号工作室”,每月也能从拉娜的在线工作中进账4000欧元。而负责“20号工作室”视频内容传输并负责从客户信用卡中收取费用的“茉莉直播”,则位于该视频直播产业链金字塔的顶部,入账金额翻倍,达8000欧元。


LiveJasmin is the largest internet cam host in the world. Between 35 and 40 million users visit it daily, and at any given moment, there are 2,000 models live online. It is not hard to understand how the web-cam industry, overall, generated an estimated $2-3bn in 2016.

“茉莉直播”目前是全球最大的互联网直播服务商,每天的活跃用户在3500到4000万之间,而且,每时每刻,在线直播的“模特”会有2000位之多。这也就不难明白,为什么网络视频直播整个行业2016年的总收入会达20至30亿美元的规模。



Lana is a graduate who worked in real estate until the global economic crash of 2008 plunged Romania into recession. That is when she first took up video-chat. Her first day in front of the camera has stayed with her.

拉娜大学毕业后,曾在房地产行业工作,受2008年全球经济危机,罗马尼亚陷入了衰退。也就是在那时,拉娜开始接触视频直播行业。第一次在摄像头前工作时的感觉,直到现在,拉娜仍记忆犹新。


"I was alone in the room, and it felt like there were hundreds of people around me. And I couldn't keep up with what they were all saying, and what they were asking of me. It was quite shocking. But then I learned to be perceptive about which member was a potential paying customer and not to waste time with all of them in the free online space."

“房间里,尽管只有我一人,但总感觉,周围有成百上千的人。而且,我也来不及听他们都说些什么,问我什么我也来不及应答,搞得我手忙脚乱的。不过,后来我学会了观察,都有哪些会员有可能会付钱,而不会在免费在线空间在所有人身上浪费时间。”


So what happens in a private, webcam one-to-one?

那么,一对一私聊时会是怎样的呢?


There are a lot of members looking for love - they want the connection - some want you to call their name

有很多会员渴望拥有爱情,他们想要恋爱,有些会员会想让你叫他们的名字。


"Mostly it's conversation. I do role-play sometimes, and a small part of it is nudity and masturbation," she says.

拉娜说:“多数情况下,都只是聊聊天。有时,我也会做角色扮演,很少情况下,也会有裸露和自我安慰。”


While the members sometimes try to push her to do things she doesn't want to do, she is able to set the pace.

有时,会有会员想要拉娜做些她不喜欢做的事,拉娜则能决定进展节奏。


"It's up to you as a woman to lead, and that's quite empowering."

“你是女方,决定权在你这里,这种感觉,会让我感到拥有权力。”


The important thing is to keep a paying client online for as many minutes as possible.

重要的是,要尽量让付钱客户保持在线,时间越长越好。


"You have 10 minutes of being cute and sexy, and then you better have something to talk about because otherwise the member will not stay," says Andra Chirnogeanu, Studio 20's PR manager.

“20号工作室”公关经理安德拉介绍,“扮可爱、装性感,或许十分钟左右就够了,然后,你最好有些东西可聊,否则,会员可能会下线。”



To this end, Studio 20 employs trainers, a psychologist and an English teacher. Most of the clients are North American and European, so it is essential the models can communicate with them.

为实现这个目标,“20号工作室”还招聘培训师、心理师以及英语教师。客户大多来自北美和欧洲,因此,模特需要用英语与他们沟通。


But the English teacher, Andrea, has a remit that goes far beyond language skills.

不过,关于英语老师安德里亚所做的工作,教授语言技能只是其中很小的一部分。


"I teach them about fetishes - what a fetish is, why a person has one… We study Freud and a lot of psychology. And we study a book of gestures because women must be sensual, smart and beautiful."

“我还教他们恋物方面的知识,什么是恋物,人为什么会恋物等等,我们还学佛洛尹德精神分析学,还有很多心理学方面的。我们也学人体姿态方面的东西,毕竟,模特们必须会展现体态,显得伶俐,给人美感。”


译者注:fetish: a desire for sex that comes from seeing a particular type of object or doing a particular activity, especially when the object or activity is considered unusual, 〔看见某物品或做某事引起性欲的〕恋物〔尤为不寻常之物或事〕



Geography is important too, so the models can talk about where the members are from.

地理知识也非常重要,这样,模特们就可与会员聊聊会员们的家乡。


"That or exotic places," says Andrea. "This is not only a sex business as some people think - models have to speak with a member as if they are in a normal, online relationship. Being able to discuss many subjects brings comfort to both parties."

“可以聊会员的家乡,或聊聊其他具有异国情调的地方”,安德里亚说,“这个工作,不像与人们想象的那样,只与性有关。模特还得与会员进行沟通交流,就如他们之间有着一种正常的在线关系。若能聊的东西很多,双方的感觉就会越好。”


Studio 20 is the largest studio webcam franchise in the world. It has nine branches in Romania, including one employing "cam-boys" who service the gay market. Its other branches are in the Colombian city of Cali, Budapest and Los Angeles.

“20号工作室”是全球最大的网络直播特许经营工作室,在罗马尼亚有9家分支机构,其中包括一家专门雇佣“直播男孩”以服务同性市场。在哥伦比亚的卡利、匈牙利的布达佩斯以及美国的洛杉矶,都有它们的分支机构。



Not all models work from a studio. Sandy Bell - a graduate with two university degrees - is one of a small army of women who webcam from home. She makes about 100 euros (£90) a day when she goes online to supplement her income as an interior designer. One advantage of being independent - and dealing directly with a web-hosting company - is that she earns a larger percentage of members' fees.

不是所有的模特都在工作室工作。桑迪,一位拥有两所大学文凭的大学毕业生,就是一部分在家进行网络直播工作的女性之一。桑迪还有一份室内设计师的工作,不过,网络直播一天可挣约100欧元,可获得一点额外收入。直接与网络直播服务商进行联系在家工作,这样更独立自由,而且,从会员支付的费用中的抽成比例也更高。


"Mostly they're nice guys, not crazy men," she says. "There are a lot of members looking for love. They want the connection. Some members want you to call their name. Or to talk to them while you dance and strip. I'm very honest with them - they know I have a boyfriend, and they know we are not going to have sex in real life."

“很多客人,都很好,并不是人渣”,桑迪说,“有很多会员,是想找到爱情,他们想要恋爱,有些会员,会想让你叫他们的名字,有些会员,则想让你边跳边脱并和他们聊。我对他们非常真诚,他们知道,我有男友,他们也知道,现实生活中我们不可能发生什么。”



Sandy Bell's partner lives with her in their high-rise flat on the outskirts of Bucharest. He knows what she does, but her parents do not. It is not uncommon in this industry - even for studio owners - to hide their occupations from family and friends. This accounts for the fact that those who talked to the BBC in Bucharest preferred to use their cam name, or just a first name.

桑迪的男友与桑迪住在布加勒斯特郊区的一栋高层公寓楼,他知道桑迪的工作,不过桑迪的父母不知道。在这个行业中,对家人和朋友隐瞒工作实情,并不稀罕,即使是工作室的老板们,也会这样做。布加勒斯特接受我们采访的人,也想让我们用他们的网名或名字,而不是全名,个中原因也就不言自明了。


Unlike many who work in the sex industry, Sandy Bell does not worry about her own security.

不像在性服务行业工作中的很多人,桑迪对自己的安全并不担心。


"What can a member do to me? If he crosses a line or even if he is rude to me, I just click the mouse and stop it. And I can talk to the administrator on the website and they ban the IP address, so the guy can never enter again even if he changes his nickname. I mean, those people are thousands of miles away from me. They don't touch you - nobody touches you. You go online alone and you work online alone. This has nothing to do with prostitution."

“会员能对我做什么?若他做的过火了,抑或即使是他对我有点粗鲁了,我只需点下鼠标,就结束了。而且,我也可以告诉网站管理员,封禁那个IP地址,这样即使那个人改了网名,他也进不来了。我的意思是,这些客人,与我相距千里万里。他们不会接触到你,没有人能接触到你。你在线时,你是一个人,你工作时,也是一个人。这与性交易没什么关系。”


Is Sandy Bell a victim? She says she is not, though feminists such as Irina Ilisei say the question is more complicated than it seems.

桑迪是一位受害者么?桑迪表示,她不是,尽管诸如伊丽娜的女权主义者们认为,这个问题并不像看起来那么简单。


"Do we talk about women who are forced to do this? Are they women who choose it? Or perhaps they do it because they are psychologically manipulated, or they have a lack of economic stability. Probably, it's a combination of all these factors."

“我们需要考虑的是,这些女性是被迫这样做的么?她们这样做是她们自己的选择么?或者,她们这样做是因为她们在心理意义上被利用了,抑或,她们经济不稳定缺钱?或许,所有这些因素,都在其中起了一定作用。”


Ilisei believes the push factors include Romania's high rate of teenage pregnancy, and the fact that 30% of those who finish higher education cannot find a job.

伊丽娜表示,促成这一现象的很多因素中,也包括罗马尼亚社会较高的未成年怀孕率,还有,完成高等教育的毕业生中,有30%的人找不到工作。



The webcam industry also does its best to entice young women into the business.

网络直播行业也在尽其所能,来吸引年轻女性进入这个行业。


"There are advertisements on university campuses," says Ilisei. "Students get direct Facebook messages with offers of work. And the studios are very corporate - exactly like an entry-career job in other fields. The language is all about empowering young women, being independent, learning skills, even getting bonuses if you convince your friends to try it too."

“在各个大学校园,就有相关广告”,伊丽娜表示很,“大学生在社交网站上就会直接收到此类工作方面的信息,而且,直播工作室也非常善于营销,就像其他领域针对刚入社会的人群所做的营销那样,都是关于赋予年轻女性以权力、独立性、技能学习,甚至若成功劝说朋友也入职的话,会获得奖金等。”


For Lana, 31, webcamming has provided enough money for her to bring up her daughter alone, and to think about investing money in something "that will bring money to the country". She plans to give up in two years' time.

对31岁的拉娜来讲,网络直播已能让她挣足够多的钱,来自己供养她的女儿,而且还能有余钱来考虑进行投资,投资点“能给国家带来贡献的”东西。这个工作,拉娜打算再做两年。


But some women are not free to make the choices Lana has. Oana, 28, counts herself as an escapee from the sex industry. At 16 - a minor - she fell in love with a boyfriend who persuaded her to do video chat.

不过,有些女性并不像拉娜那样有自由选择的能力。28岁的瓦娜就感慨,自己终于从那个行业中逃离了出来。16岁时,瓦娜还未成年,交了男朋友,而男朋友却劝说她进了视频聊天这个行业。


"He told me I just had to talk. That's all. But he was in the room with me, and we made pornography there."

“他告诉我,我只需要说话聊天即可,仅此而已,不过,他和我一起在房间里,我们在那里会做点色情的东西。”


It is illegal in Romania for a man and woman to webcam together, but it is impossible to say how commonly the law is flouted in the way Oana describes. She went on to work as a prostitute in Germany, until she found the courage to return to Bucharest and a new life. Now she works in sex work prevention - talking to young women about her experiences, and trying to persuade them of the danger of video chat.

在罗马尼亚,男女一起进行网络直播是不合法的,不过,如瓦娜所说的那些,在罗马尼亚又那么稀松平常,法律完全起不了什么作用。后来,瓦娜又在德国从事性服务行业,最终她下定决心,回到布加勒斯特,开始新生活。目前,瓦娜是一位性工作预防工作者,与年轻女性聊她自己的经历,并努力向她们传达网络视频聊天的危险。


"There are girls who think they will just stay in front of the camera and make money. But all the things they do there will affect their minds. The next step is prostitution. I see that now."

“有些女孩会觉得,她们只是在摄像头前面坐着,然后就能挣钱。不过,她们在那里所做的一切,都会对她们的心态、心理带来影响。再往下一步走,就是性服务,我现在是彻底看清楚了。”


Lana disagrees.

拉娜对此看法表示不赞同。


"It's about selling your brain, not your body," she says. "I see it like a performance, like a show. But this is not a job for everybody - a lot of girls quit after a few weeks or even days, because they have this mindset that they're selling their body. Your mindset is what matters in this job. I have my limits, and I truly do not feel exploited."

“这个工作,用的是你的脑袋,而不是你的身体”,拉娜表示,“我知道,这个工作像是一个表演,一个网络秀,不过,这个工作不是谁都能做得了的,很多女孩做了没几周甚至是没几天便停掉了,因为,她们觉得,她们是在出卖她们的身体。对于这个工作,你的心态是非常重要的,我有我自己的界限,我真的不会认为,我是在被剥削利用。”


Andra Chirnogeanu, Studio 20's PR Manager, also rejects the idea that this is risky or psychologically damaging work.

“20号工作室”的公关经理安德拉也不认为“这个工作有风险或是一个会带来心理伤害的工作”。


"It's psychologically damaging to stay 12 hours in an office getting paid a minimum wage," she says.

安德拉表示,“在办公室工作12个小时却得到一点点薪水,那才是会带来心理伤害的工作。”


But the fact that models often seek to conceal their job is, perhaps, telling. If Lana and Sandy Bell could have made a good living using their qualifications and other work experience, would they still have chosen to undress for clients in New York, Frankfurt and London?

不过,模特们经常努力隐瞒她们自己的工作,这样的现实或许就能说明点什么。若拉娜和桑迪能用他们的文凭或其他工作经验来过上不错的生活,她们还会选择为纽约、法兰克福或伦敦的客人脱衣裸露么?


直播女神陶乐乐(音译)

一年能赚45万美元


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