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巴西一瞥|《里约热内卢》:是魅力之城,还是暴力之都?

2017-08-31 从余启 我与我们的世界 我与我们的世界


欢迎打开“我与我们的世界”,从此,让我们一起“纵览世界之风云变幻、洞察社会之脉搏律动、感受个体之生活命运、挖掘自然之点滴奥妙”。

我与我们的世界,既是一个“奋斗”的世界,也是一个“思考”的世界。奋而不思则罔,思而不奋则殆。这个世界,你大,它就大;你小,它就小。

欢迎通过上方公众号名称打开公众号“查看历史信息”来挖掘往期文章,因为,每期都能让你“走近”不一样的世界、带给你不一样的精彩


本期导读:里约热内卢,葡萄牙语为Rio de Janeiro,意为“一月的河”,简称里约。里约是位于巴西东南部的一座城市,巴西第二大城,仅次于圣保罗,面积1,256平方公里,人口600多万,1960年4月21日前一直是巴西的首都,也曾是宗主国葡萄牙帝国在本土被拿破仑入侵时(1808–1821)的流亡首都。


里约风景优美,每年吸引大量观光游客,里约市境内的里约热内卢港是世界三大天然良港之一,而里约热内卢基督像也是世界新七大奇迹之一。里约热内卢于2009年10月2日,获得2016年第31届夏季奥林匹克运动会举办权。




里约虽是世界主要大都市之一,不过,该市居民中,却有高达15%的人居住条件恶劣。穷人区中条件最差的贫民窟称为“favela”,拥挤在山坡上,遇到暴雨时常发生事故。贫民窟地区还有毒品犯罪、团伙殴斗、警察暴力、缺乏卫生设施等各种社会问题。



Is Rio de Janeiro a city at war?

里约这个城市,在打仗么?


里约一博物馆附近巡逻的海军陆战队士兵


This time last year, Rio de Janeiro was winding down from the euphoria of the Olympic Games.

去年此时,里约正从奥运的狂热中慢慢清醒。


Despite the city's violent reputation, much had been done to make Rio live up to its nickname, Marvellous City.

尽管里约已因暴力而闻名于世,不过,里约也做了很多工作,以符合人们对里约“奇妙之城”的期望。


Money was poured in to the city's favelas through projects such as Police Pacification (UPP).

里约向贫民区投了大量资金,实施诸如“治安平定”等政策来遏制暴力事件频发。


This put a police presence in the slum areas to try to wrest control from drug gangs. But the investments have widely been seen as a failure.

警力进驻了贫民区,试图从毒品团伙手中夺回贫民区的控制权。不过,钱是花了,效果却没怎么见着。


Rio is facing challenges on several fronts.

里约所面临的挑战,可不止只有这些。


暴力事件井喷,遍及里约全城


Former Mayor Eduardo Paes is being investigated for allegedly taking millions of dollars in bribes for Olympic Games contracts.

里约前市长佩斯,被控从奥运工程承包中收受数百万美元贿赂,正接受调查。


And last year, Rio state declared a state of financial emergency. There are frequent criticisms that there is not even money to pay for the petrol in police patrol cars.

就在去年,里约地方政府还宣布面临财政危机。经常会有声音批评,连警车加油都快没钱了。


The crisis in Rio is having deadly consequences. A police officer is killed on average every 54 hours in Rio state.

里约面临的危机,也产生了实实在在的恶果。里约辖区内,平均每54小时,就会有一名警察被杀。


According to the state's security secretariat, nearly 3,500 people were murdered in the first six months of this year, 15% more than last year.

据里约安全部门统计,今年上半年六个月中,近3500人被害,同比增幅超15%。


The number of people killed by police in shootouts rose by 45%.

警力行动中击毙的人数增幅则为45%。


War in Rio

“战乱”里约

Every day, there are new headlines splashed across the papers reporting the growing violence.

每天,各大报纸新闻头条,都是关于日渐恶化的暴力问题。


Jornal Extra has even created a pull-out war section that its journalists say is needed to be able to cover the stories.

《号外日报》甚至曾专门增加大张插页来对暴力事件进行报道,据该报记者称,之所以这样做,是因为暴力事件太多,日常版面已不够用。


Thousands of soldiers have been deployed on the streets in recent weeks, a show of force perhaps but not everyone is convinced they will make a difference.

近几周,成千上万的军力已被部署于各条街道,治安力量的提升,或许能起到作用,不过,并不是所有人都对此有信心。


"Things are out of control here," says Marcio Jorge who works in a supermarket on Copacabana.

在科帕卡巴纳海滩一家超市工作的乔治就说,“现在这里的情况,已失控。”


"We don't even want to leave the house because we don't feel safe. In my neighbourhood yesterday eight vehicles were robbed and now the crossfire can be heard everywhere, not only in the favelas. Insecurity is everywhere."

“我们甚至都不敢出门,因为我们觉得不安全。昨天,就在我们社区,有八辆车被抢。现在,到处都能听到交火的声音,不仅仅是在贫民区。总而言之一句话,到处都不安全。”


Mapping the violence

“掌控”暴力

Amid the violence, Dennis Coli and three of his friends came up with a bright idea. They developed an app called OTT (Onde Tem Tiroteio, or Where There Are Shootouts). It informs people about violence in the city.

针对暴力事件频发这个问题,克里与他的三个朋友想到一个不错的主意,开发了一款名叫OTT(警匪交火一览无余)的应用软件。通过该软件,就能知道里约这座城市哪里发生了暴力事件。


克里与卡曼诺及另外两位朋友开发了OTT应用软件


OTT has reliable sources in favelas and across the city. When they hear of a shoot-out or a police operation, they ask their contacts to confirm it, all within two minutes so they can alert their followers on their app, or on Facebook, Twitter and Instagram.

OTT这款软件有着可靠的信息源,遍布各大贫民区及里约整个城市。当听说哪里交火声或有警力出动,他们就会联系相关人员对此进行确认,不到两分钟就能完成,因此,他们就能通过该软件或其他社交软件提醒关注该软件的人。


"We had to do something because the government wasn't doing anything," Mr Coli says.

克里表示,“我们必须得有所行动,因为政府根本没什么行动。”


"Nobody knows how many shootings are happening, how many robberies are happening and we are showing this. We're exposing the violence in Rio at this point in time."

“没人知道,究竟有多少交火正在发生,有多少抢劫正在发生,而我们就是在做这个。我们所提供的及时信息,就是里约此时此刻正在发生的暴力事件。”


Cecilia Oliveira, with the help of Amnesty International, works on another app called Fogo Cruzado (Crossfire).

奥利维拉在“国际特赦组织”的帮助下,正在开发另一个款名叫“交火”的应用软件。


She is so overworked, she is having to hire more people to keep across all the shootings in the city. And she does not think it will get any better any time soon.

奥利维拉自己已经应付不了这个工作,正在招募更多的人来对里约整座城市里发生的交火事件进行跟踪,而且,奥利维拉也觉得,短期内情况不会有所好转。


"It's a hard situation and add to this, there is a new gang that used to work in Sao Paulo coming to Rio, we have a lot of guns on the streets," she says.

奥利维拉说,“情况很严峻,更为雪上加霜的是,里约又出现了一个新匪帮,是从圣保罗过来的,现在大街上,到处都是枪。”


She thinks Rio's financial problems are exacerbating things: "How do you resolve this situation if you are not paying the police? It's hard to think of a solution in this scenario."

奥利维拉觉得,里约的财政状况问题,使得社会治安更为恶化,“若警察收入太少,你怎么解决这个治安问题?这种状况若持续下去,根本就没办法解决。”


Wrong police focus

问题不在于警力

But one former police commander, Ibis Pereira, says Rio's problem lies in bad government policies towards tackling violence.

佩雷拉,一位前警力指挥官,就说到,里约的问题在于政府针对暴力问题的政策有问题。


军队已进驻里约某些区域以遏制暴力犯罪


"When a Brazilian dies every nine minutes, when 10% of the homicides in the world happen here, there is something deeply wrong," he says.

佩雷拉说,“每九分钟,就会有一名巴西公民被害,世界上高达10%的谋害事件,发生在巴西,这就很能说明问题,而且问题很严重。”


"Despite being one of the largest economies in the world, there is a brutal inequality. Historically, we've tried to solve the problem of violence - especially in the poorest areas - exclusively with police."

“巴西尽管是全球最大的经济体之一,但社会不平等问题却非常严峻。曾几何时,我们也是努力解决暴力问题,特别是在贫困地区,不过,都只是依靠警力。”


Not enough has been done to make the poorer parts of the city safer places to live in, he says.

佩雷拉表示,让贫民区变成更适宜居住的、能够保证基本安全的区域,做的工作还远远不够。


It is a feeling echoed by many. Innocent families get caught up in this violence in unimaginable ways.

对于这种观点,很多人都很赞同。面临这种暴力状况,社会各个家庭是无辜的,他们所遭受到的,也是想象不到的。


暴力风险较高区域的父母们都已不让孩子出门


Brazilian daily O Globo reported that last Friday morning nearly 20,000 students were unable to go to school because schools and crèches were closed in areas of high risk.

巴西媒体《环球日报》报道,上周五上午,有近20000名学生没能到学校上学,因当时那个区域暴力风险较高,学校和托儿所就关闭了。


But the story that shocked everybody in Rio was that of Claudineia dos Santos Melo and her baby Arthur.

不过,让里约所有居民震惊的,是梅洛和她早产的男婴亚瑟所遭遇的。


She was days away from giving birth in June when she was hit in the stomach. The bullet also hit her baby.

今年六月,梅洛将要临盆的前几天,被子弹击中腹部,也击中了她腹中的婴儿。


Little Arthur was delivered by emergency c-section and remained in critical condition.

梅洛就进行了紧急剖腹手术,小亚瑟的情况一直很危险。


But earlier this month, he passed away.

本月初,小亚瑟走了。


Claudineia and her partner Klebson da Silva held a funeral for him when they should have been enjoying the first weeks of parenthood.

梅洛和丈夫席尔瓦,在他们本应初尝做父母之乐之际,却为小亚瑟举行了葬礼。


Arthur was the youngest victim of Rio's violence.

小亚瑟,成为里约暴力问题年龄最小的受害者。



国际特赦组织简介

往期精彩:


西方社会一瞥|《BBC》:活在“水深火热”中的西方人民

中国往事|《CNN》:南京长江大桥的故事,波澜又壮阔

直播世界|《新兴产业》:小小直播摄像头,窥尽人性大世界

《白宫内斗》:被甩出局的首席战略顾问誓言将斗争进行到底

一直在变|《婚姻制度》:制度源于历史,终将也消于历史

俄军在行动|《经济学人》:俄冷战后最大军演,剑指北约

国际话语权|《唐奖》:中华文化圈的“诺贝尔奖”落座台湾

表达的艺术|《概念摄影》:有人的地方,就有思想的力量,

民族主义|《关注印度》:印度的民族主义,源远且流长

诗图一家|《每人都有两只眼睛》:一只向外看,一只向内观


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