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深度报告|《世界经济论坛》:实现男女平等,还要再等100年

2017-11-11 从余启 我与我们的世界 我与我们的世界

欢迎打开“我与我们的世界”,从此,让我们一起“纵览世界之风云变幻、洞察社会之脉搏律动、感受个体之生活命运、挖掘自然之点滴奥妙”。

我与我们的世界,既是一个“奋斗”的世界,也是一个“思考”的世界。奋而不思则罔,思而不奋则殆。这个世界,你大,它就大;你小,它就小。

欢迎通过上方公众号名称打开公众号“查看历史消息”来挖掘往期文章,因为,每期都能让你“走近”不一样的世界、带给你不一样的精彩


本期导读:世界经济论坛(World Economic Forum,WEF)是一个以基金会形式成立的非营利组织,成立于1971年,总部设在瑞士日内瓦,以每年冬季在瑞士滑雪胜地达沃斯举办年会(俗称达沃斯论坛,Davos Forum)闻名于世,历次论坛均云集全球工商、政治、学术、媒体等领域的领袖人物,讨论世界所面临最紧迫的议题。


2007年起,世界经济论坛在中国举办 “新领军者年会”,即夏季达沃斯论坛,召集被论坛认定为的“全球成长型企业”在中国的天津和大连集会,这些企业主要是在经济新兴国家(如中国、印度、俄罗斯和巴西)中的商业领军企业,还包括一些发达国家中迅速发展的企业。


世界经济论坛从2006年开始统计发布“全球性别差距指数”(Global Gender Gap Index),以对性别不平等的程度进行了解,并对性别平等的进步进行跟踪。2017年的报告对全球144个国家在性别平等方面的进展情况进行了衡量,衡量范围涵盖经济、政治、教育、健康等四大领域,每个领域又分多项细分指标进行评定赋值排序。



Women won't have equality for 100 years - World Economic Forum

世界经济论坛:实现男女平等还要再等100年



The equality gap between men and women would take 100 years to close at its current rate, an economic monitoring group has suggested.

世界经济论坛统计数据显示,按照目前的进展速度,还要再需100年,才能实现男女平等。


It is the first time that data from the World Economic Forum (WEF) has shown a year-on-year worsening of the gender gap since it began charting it in 2006.

这是世界经济论坛2006年首次公布性别平等报告以来,首次显示男女平等比前一年有恶化趋势。


The report ranks 144 countries by economic opportunities, education, political participation and health.

今年的报告涵盖144个国家和地区,涉及经济机会、教育、政治参与以及健康四个方面的指标。


Women are measured as having 68% of the chances and outcomes that men have.

根据衡量结果,在男性所享有的机会和结果中,女性仅能享有其中的68%。


This is slightly down from the 68.3% measured last year.

这与去年的衡量结果68.3%相比,有轻微下降。


The group predicts that it would be a century to close all areas of equality it monitors globally, well up from the 83 years predicted in 2016.

世界经济论坛预计,要在全球范围内所有领域实现男女平等,还要再等100年,这比2016年所预计的83年有所延长。



Gender parity is closest in areas of health and education, it says, but significant gaps in economic participation and political empowerment continue to endure across the world.

该组织研究报告显示,性别平等状况在健康和教育领域表现最好,不过,在经济参与和政治权益方面的表现,全球范围内差距都仍很大。


Women will have to wait 217 years before they earn as much as men and are equally represented in the workplace, the figures suggest.

研究数据显示,女性要想在收入和工作方面追上男性,还要再等217年。



Nordic countries remain among some of the world's best for overall equality. Iceland tops the list with a 12% gender gap across all the WEF's measures. Norway, Finland and Sweden are all in the top five.

从男女平等总体表现来看,全球范围内,北欧国家仍表现最好。冰岛在全球排名第一,男女差距在所有衡量指标中只有12%。挪威、芬兰、瑞典的排名也均都在前五之内。


Rwanda came fourth in the list for overall gender equality with a gap of 18%. The country has the highest share of women in parliament in the world - they occupy three in every five seats.

从性别平等总体表现来看,卢旺达全球排名第四,性别差距为18%。卢旺达议会中女性占比为全世界最高,每5个席位中有3个席位为女性。


Nicaragua, Slovenia, Ireland, New Zealand and the Philippines also made the top 10 on the Global Gender Gap rankings.

全球性别平等排名中,尼加拉瓜、斯洛文尼亚、爱尔兰、新西兰、菲律宾也都排在前十。


Women in the Middle East and North Africa fared the worst, with war-torn Yemen coming last on the list with a gender equality score of just 52%.

中东和北非地区的女性命运最惨,遭受战争祸害的也门在排名末位,性别平等得分只有52%。


144个国家中排名前十和后十的国家


The report shows women in the world earn less not just because of gendered salary differences, but because women are more likely to do unpaid or part-time work than men.

今年的报告还显示,全球女性之所以挣钱较少,不仅是因为薪酬水平在性别方面有差异,而且也因为,与男性相比,女性更可能做没有报酬或兼职性的付出。


Women also generally tend to work in lower-paid professions and are less likely to be in highly-paid senior roles in companies.

大体上来说,女性也比男性更倾向于在低薪职业就业,也较少能在高薪的公司高级职位中任职。


Slovenia has the smallest gap in gender earnings - with women there on average earning 80.5% of the male national average.

在性别收入差距方面,斯洛文尼亚表现最佳,全国范围内平均来讲,女性收入相当于男性收入的80.5%。


The report says that if the economic gender gap was totally closed:

该报告表示,若在经济方面完全实现男女平等的话,那么:

China could add $2.5tn to its GDP

中国的GDP可增加2.5万亿美元

The United States could add $1,750bn

美国的GDP可增加17.50亿美元

France and Germany could add more than $300bn each

德法的GDP 可分别增加3000多亿美元

The UK could add $250bn

英国的GDP可增加2500亿美元


New world leaders' impact

世界新领导人的影响

Both Canada and France saw improvements to their political empowerment measures after Justin Trudeau and Emmanuel Macron added more women in ministerial positions within their governments.

加拿大总理特鲁多和法国总统马克龙在其政府部长职位中安排了更多女性,这让两国在女性权益方面的指标水平都得到了提升。


The US saw a marked drop in this area, with female political empowerment at its lowest rate in 10 years. It came 96th in this area.

在这方面,美国表现下降的厉害,女性在政治权益方面的进步是近10年来最差的。美国在该领域的指标排名为第96位。



The report blames a significant decrease in female ministerial positions for the fall - a Freedom of Information request in March revealed that only 27% of all jobs within the Trump administration were taken by women.

该报告认为,是因为部长级职位中女性数量显著下降导致该指数排名降低。今年三月一份基于信息自由原则诉求所获得的信息显示,特朗普政府中所有职位中,女性占比仅有27%。


译者注:

信息自由:Freedom of information is an extension of freedom of speech, a fundamental human right recognized in international law, which is today understood more generally as freedom of expression in any medium, be it orally, in writing, print, through the Internet or through art forms. This means that the protection of freedom of speech as a right includes not only the content, but also the means of expression. Freedom of information also refers to the right to privacy in the content of the Internet and information technology. As with the right to freedom of expression, the right to privacy is a recognised human right and freedom of information acts as an extension to this right. Lastly, freedom of information can include opposition to patents, opposition to copyrights or opposition to intellectual property in general. The international and United States Pirate Party have established political platforms based largely on freedom of information issues.

信息自由,又称资讯自由,指的是保护使用互联网和资讯科技表达意见的自由。信息自由也涉及对于资讯技术领域的审查,譬如在不受到审查或者是限制下使用网络资料的能力。信息自由可以视作是言论自由的延伸,受到国际人权法认可的基本人权,后者在现代被普遍认为是在任何型态的媒体上,以口述、文字、印刷、透过互联网或透过艺术表达的自由。这就意味着,在言论自由的保护范围方面,除了内容以外,还包含表达的方式。信息自由也可能用于互联网和资讯技术领域下的隐私权。隐私权,如同自由表达权,皆是人权包含的权利,而信息自由法则是隐私权的一种延伸。


Overall the US fell four places to take 49th position.

总体上,美国排名下降四位,今年排在第49位。



The UK climbed five places, taking 15th spot this year. Its rank is largely due to high levels of female education, and Prime Minister Theresa May's government has helped the UK to improve its political score. A record number of female MPs were elected to the country's parliament in June.

英国的排名上升了5位,今年排在第15名。英国排名的上升,主要是因为女性在教育方面的指标排名较高,首相梅姨政府也让英国在政治方面的得分有所提高。今年六月,英国议会选举后女性议员数量已达新高。


But it continues to lag behind in economic participation and opportunities for women in particular. The UK ranks 95th in the world for income equality, with women in the UK earning on average 45% less per year than men.

不过,英国在女性经济参与和机会方面的表现仍在拉后腿。世界范围内,英国在男女收入平等方面排名第95位。从年均收入来看,英国女性的收入比男性的要少45%。


Other countries that improved overall included Bangladesh, which now ranks 47th in the world and the highest in South Asia after increasing female employment in professions.

男女平等有进步的其他国家还有孟加拉国,今年的全球排名为第47位,在南亚地区排名最高,主要是因为该国的女性在就业方面有显著进步。


Sub-Saharan African countries made marked improvements in women's health. Nine countries from the region are in the world's top 20 for high female labour force participation.

撒哈拉以南非洲国家在女性健康方面进步显著。该地区中,有9个国家在女性劳动力参与方面的全球排名位于全球的前20位。



往期精彩:


第三性|《BBC》:德国最高法院做出裁决,认可第三性别

睡眠与健康|《BBC》:关于睡眠,你应知道的十件事儿

深度报告|《皮尤研究中心》:中美力量博弈与全球局势变迁

深度民调|《皮尤研究中心》:枪支暴力泛滥,民众态度依然

知识就是力量|《汇丰集团报告》:教育的价值,越来越高

繁衍生息|《明明白白 “做” 人》:人们为什么想要孩子?

遥望世界2050|《普华永道》:中国和印度,将领跑全球

陆克文谈中国|《全球脑库》:当中国领导世界。。。

旧书新摘|《政治的人生》:人生无处不政治(文末有福利)

诗图一家|《远观中国》:只身远在萨摩亚,心魂牵系新中国


注:

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