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红色记忆|《历史在荡漾》:百年记忆之“莫斯科篇”

2017-11-13 从余启 我与我们的世界 我与我们的世界

欢迎打开“我与我们的世界”,从此,让我们一起“纵览世界之风云变幻、洞察社会之脉搏律动、感受个体之生活命运、挖掘自然之点滴奥妙”。

我与我们的世界,既是一个“奋斗”的世界,也是一个“思考”的世界。奋而不思则罔,思而不奋则殆。这个世界,你大,它就大;你小,它就小。

欢迎通过上方公众号名称打开公众号“查看历史消息”来挖掘往期文章,因为,每期都能让你“走近”不一样的世界、带给你不一样的精彩

 

本期导读:十月革命,又称红十月、十月起义、列宁革命或布尔什维克革命,是1917年俄国革命经历了二月革命后的第二个阶段,推翻了以克伦斯基为领导的俄国临时政府,建立布尔什维克领导的政府。十月革命发生于1917年11月7日(儒略历10月25日)。

 

这场革命跟随并且利用了发生于同年的二月革命,那场革命推翻了沙皇专制并建立了以贵族和前贵族为主体组建的临时政府。此时城市工人开始组建委员会(俄语称“苏维埃”),其中革命者批评临时政府及其行动。

 

发生于彼得格勒的十月革命推翻了临时政府并给当地俄国社会民主工党中占据多数(俄语称“布尔什维克”)的派别控制的苏维埃赋予了权力。紧接着开始建立世界上第一个宣称社会主义的国家俄罗斯苏维埃社会主义联邦共和国。随着这场革命未能得到彼得格勒以外地区的广泛承认,俄国内战(1917–1922)爆发并于1922年建立苏联。

 

这场革命由布尔什维克利用他们在彼得格勒苏维埃中的影响力组建武装力量来领导。布尔什维克赤卫队武装在军事革命委员会指挥下开始于儒略历1917年10月24日接管政府建筑。翌日,冬宫(当时俄国首都彼得格勒的临时政府所在地)被夺取。

 

苏联等社会主义国家及组织普遍认为,十月革命是经列宁领导下的布尔什维克领导的武装起义,建立了人类历史上第二个无产阶级政权──苏维埃政权和由马克思主义政党领导的第一个社会主义国家。

 

革命推翻了以资产阶级的俄国临时政府,为1918至1920年的俄国内战和1922年苏联成立奠定了基础。而持有反对观点的学者认为,俄国临时政府实质上是由俄国社会革命党和孟什维克等社会主义者为主要成员的政府,而并非“资产阶级政府”;“冬宫之夜”也并未发生激烈的武装冲突。

 

 

In the shadow of Red October

红色十月之百年印记

 

A century ago, the Bolsheviks seized power in Russia and created the world’s first Marxist state.

一百年前,布尔什维克夺取了俄政权,创建了世上首个马克思主义国家。

 

The dramatic events of 1917 still reverberate.

一个世纪之前1917年发生的剧变,至今仍在回荡。

 

But what legacy of the revolution can be seen in four cities in Vladimir Putin's Russia?

不过,百年前的那次革命,在当下普京统治的俄罗斯,都会有什么样的印迹呢?下面就让我们通过四个城市,窥斑见豹。

 

 

The fallen idol

人设崩塌

 

I see the ghosts of communism past.

我看见,共产历史的幽灵在游荡。

 

Philosopher Karl Marx is here. He looks deep in thought.

哲学家马克思在这里,看起来,充满思想气息。

 

Dictator Joseph Stalin is here, too. He looks sinister.

斯大林也在这里,看起来,充满暴戾之气。

 

Once communist idols, these giants of history – or rather their statues – have been put out to grass in a park near Moscow.

莫斯科近郊一个公园里的草坪上,曾经历史上的伟大人物,准确地说是他们的雕塑,一尊尊岿然矗立。 


 

Here, too, stands the leader of the Russian Revolution, Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, known to the world as Lenin. Indeed, there are lots of Lenins here. In one pose, he is the great thinker, with hand on chin. In another, he’s chatting to children. A third statue has Lenin toiling away at his desk.

在这里,也有俄国革命领导人弗拉基米尔·伊里奇·乌里扬诺夫,即世人所知为列宁的塑像。实际上,这里有好几尊列宁的塑像。有尊塑像,列宁被雕刻为伟大思想者的形象,手托着下巴;另有一尊,是列宁正与孩子们聊天;还有一尊,是列宁伏案辛勤工作。

 

 

A recent study calculated that there are more than 14,000 Lenin statues across the former Soviet Union. It used to be that wherever you went in the USSR, you could be certain there was at least one Lenin looking your way.

近期一项调查研究数据显示,在前苏联范围内,列宁的雕像有14000多尊。曾经,不管到了苏联的任何地方,可以确定的是,你都能碰到至少一尊列宁的塑像。

 

In life, Lenin was a charismatic revolutionary. In death he was transformed into communism’s first personality cult. As well as the statues, his face stared down on Soviet citizens from billboards; his portrait was carried at communist parades; he was praised in songs and poems. The cradle of the Russian Revolution, St Petersburg, was renamed Leningrad in his honour.

在现实生活中,列宁是一位极具个人魅力的革命主义者,列宁死后便幻化为了第一个个人崇拜的对象。就像列宁塑像我们必须仰望才行,在宣传板画中,列宁也总是从高处俯视苏联民众;举行阅兵游行时,列队会抬着列宁的画像轰轰前行;歌曲和诗歌里,也充满对列宁的赞扬。俄国革命的摇篮圣彼得堡这座城市,也曾改名为列宁格勒,以示对他的敬仰。

 

 

Lenin taught generations of Soviet children to read. On a trip to the USSR, I once bought a reading book for nine-year-old school kids to practise my Russian. Here is my translation of page 149:

列宁教了好几代苏联孩子识字读书。有次去苏联,我曾买过一本针对九岁学龄孩子的课本来练习我的俄语,下面是我对那本书第149页上内容的译文:

 

 

“Lenin’s name is in everyone’s heart!

列宁的名字,在每个人的心中!

“We always remember Lenin,

我们一直想念列宁

We think of him so dear.

我们是如此想念他

We consider that his birthday,

我们觉得,他生日那天

Is the best day of the year.

是一年中最美好的一天

“We learn to serve the motherland,

我们学习服务祖国母亲

Just like Lenin would,

就像列宁曾做的那样

To love labour and value friendship,

爱劳动、重友谊

Like only Lenin could.”

就像只有列宁能做到的那样

 

Accompanying the poem is a picture of two children gazing religiously at Lenin’s portrait.

在这首诗的旁边,配有一幅画,画中两个孩子宗教崇敬般地望着列宁的画像。

 

 

At the heart of this cult was Lenin’s final resting place - the macabre mausoleum on Red Square, where his embalmed body was displayed and worshipped like a Soviet saint. A whole scientific institute was created to preserve the corpse. To keep Lenin looking like Lenin, the team of scientists has had to replace some skin and flesh over the years with plastics and other materials.

这种个人崇拜最浓重的地方,则在列宁最终的安息之地,即位于莫斯科红场上的那个棺椁。列宁的遗体保存下来供人们瞻仰,像是一位苏联圣人一样。为了保存尸体,还建立了一个完整的科研机构。为了让列宁的遗体看起来更像列宁,那个科研团队在过去的多年间曾用塑性材料和其他材料把部分皮肤和肉块替换掉。

 

 

In communist times people would queue for up to six hours to see the body of the "vozhd", or "great leader". Not today. To many in modern Russia, Lenin is more a museum piece than an object of adoration. Curiosity still draws foreign tourists. But the much shorter queues suggest that Russians have lost interest in him.

在苏联时代,人们会排队等待六个小时,只为亲眼见到那位“伟大领袖”的遗体。现在不再那样了,对于当代俄罗斯的很多人来说,列宁更多的是一个博物馆物品,而非崇拜的对象。好奇心依旧吸引着外国的游客,不过,排队不再那么长,这也就显示着,俄罗斯人对他已失去兴趣。

 

 

Today there is a new cult in town. True, I have yet to see a statue of Vladimir Putin in Moscow. But the souvenir shops here are full of Putin busts. You can also buy Putin mugs, fridge magnets,T-shirts, smartphone covers, even Putin chocolates. You name it, Putin’s face is currently on it. I have counted at least five different Putin 2018 calendars on sale in the newspaper kiosks. They all feature various pin-up poses of Russia’s action-man president.

现在,莫斯科有了新的崇拜对象。实际上,我暂时还没在莫斯科看到普京的雕塑。不过,莫斯科的旅游纪念品商店里,却满是普京的上半身像。你也能买到带有普京形象的杯子、冰箱贴、体恤衫、手机套,甚至是带有普京形象的巧克力,应有尽有,普京的形象随处可见。我还真的数了数,几个报亭里,售卖的带有普京形象的2018年日历版本,最少有五个。所有的版本中,净是俄罗斯行动派强人总统普京的各种飒爽雄姿。

 

 

While Brand Putin sells, Bolshevik Lenin is under fire. And it is the Orthodox Church, increasingly influential in Russia, which is leading the charge against him.

普京的形象正在大卖,而布尔什维克领导人列宁则正遭受批评。而且,正是在俄罗斯越来越具影响力的东正教,在引导着针对列宁的批评。

 

“One lesson of the revolution is we should not allow society to be shaken by people coming from abroad with a special task,” Metropolitan Hilarion, head of external relations for the Russian Orthodox Church, tells me.

“那场革命的一个教训就是,我们不能允许带有特定目的的外人,来搅乱我们的社会”,俄罗斯东正教对外关系教区负责人希拉里昂向我说到。

 


“The Bolshevik revolution started with the arrival of Lenin and more than 200 other revolutionaries who came by train through Germany. Their trip was sponsored by Germany, which was at war with Russia. This indicates the whole affair was criminal.”

“列宁和200多个其他革命分子乘火车从德国来到俄国,才有了布尔什维克革命。他们受到了德国的资助,当时德俄正在打仗,这就意味着,整个事件就是一种犯罪。”

 

In other words, with Lenin’s help, a foreign power orchestrated regime change in Russia in 1917. The argument has a contemporary ring to it. In recent years Moscow has accused Western governments of plotting social unrest in Russia.

换句话来说就是,在列宁的帮助下,外国力量操控了1917年俄国的政权变更。这样的逻辑,在当今也依然在回荡。近年来,莫斯科一直谴责西方政府试图搞乱俄罗斯社会。

 

 

The Russian authorities also link the West to the so-called “coloured revolutions” that have deposed pro-Moscow regimes, from Ukraine to Georgia. Russian officials often refer to Red October as “the first coloured revolution.”

俄罗斯当局也把西方与所谓的“颜色革命”联系在一起。从乌克兰到格鲁吉亚,亲莫斯科政权一个个已在颜色革命中倒台。俄罗斯有些官员经常把红色十月说成是“第一次颜色革命”。

 

So, if Vladimir Lenin is a fallen idol, is it time to remove him from the mausoleum and bury his body?

因此,如果说列宁的人设业已崩塌,那么,把列宁遗体挪走让他安然下葬的时候,是不是也该到了?

 

Despite Lenin’s declining popularity, it is a controversial question. When debating it earlier this year, a popular RussianTV talk show descended into a shouting match.

尽管列宁的受欢迎程度在降低,但这却依然是个具有争议的话题。一个广受观众喜爱的电视脱口秀节目今年早些时候就这个问题进行讨论时,就演变成了一场口水战。

 

“Remove Lenin, he’s a criminal,” shouted one nationalist politician.

“把列宁移走,他是罪犯”,一位民族主义政客叫喊道。

 

What’s the point?” retorted a communist MP. “Will that make food prices any lower?”

“这是什么逻辑?”一位共产主义议员回击到,“难道那样就能让食品价格变低?”

 

A nun chimed in: “Who brought us Lenin? The Germans did in a sealed train. I say put his body back in the same train and send it back to them!

一位修女也加入了口水战:“谁把列宁带给了我们?是德国人把他藏在火车里运给了我们。要我说的话,应该把列宁遗体装进那列火车,把它送还给德国!”

 

Among the guests taking part in that raucous TV show was businessman Stanislav Svistunov. I visit him at his factory in the north of Moscow.

在参加那次充满口水的节目秀的嘉宾中,有一位名叫斯坦尼斯拉夫·斯维斯图诺夫的商界人士。在他位于莫斯科北部的工厂里,我见到了他本人。

 

Stanislav’s company decorates plastic products, including funeral accessories. Plastic coffin handles and crucifixes go into the machines and when they emerge they are sparkling with a golden coating.

斯坦尼斯拉夫的公司主要翻新塑料制品,包括殡葬用品。塑料棺材把手和十字架进入他们的机械设备,等出来后就变得闪闪发亮,金光熠熠。

 

 

There is an irony to Stanislav being in the business of religious appendages.

对于斯坦尼斯拉夫来说,做宗教用品的生意,有点反讽意味。

 

He shows me a book. It is the family history of Vladimir Lenin - the communist who declared war on the church.

他向我展示了一本书,是向教会宣战的共产主义战士列宁的家族史。

 

“I am Lenin’s great-great-grandnephew,” declares Stanislav, pointing to a family tree. “My great-great-great-grandmother, Sophia, was the sister of Maria, Lenin’s mother.”

“我本人就是列宁的重重侄外孙”,斯坦尼斯拉夫指着族谱这样说到,“我的曾曾曾外祖母索菲亚,与列宁的母亲玛利亚是亲姐妹。”

 

Stanislav assures me that only once did his family benefit from their famous relative. One year back in the 1930s winter was so cold that his great-grandfather and great-grandmother had to burn some of their furniture to keep warm. Out of desperation they wrote to the authorities mentioning the family connection.

斯坦尼斯拉夫以肯定的语气向我说到,他的家族从他们那位著名的亲戚那里获得过的好处,只有一次。1930年代的某年冬天,当时非常寒冷,他曾祖父和曾祖母就不得不把烧掉一些家具来取暖。情形实在难以为继,然后他们就给当局写信,提到了家族亲缘关系。

 

 

“Some people came to check their identity papers. Shortly after, a lorry arrived with firewood. My great-grandfather was sworn to secrecy about it.”

“上面就派人来查他们的身份证件。没过多久,一辆货车就运来了柴火。我的曾祖父被要求发誓,要保密。”

 

As for what to do with Lenin’s body, Stanislav assumes it will be up to the Kremlin to decide.

至于列宁的遗体该怎么办,斯坦尼斯拉夫觉得,将会由克里姆林宫做这个决定。

 

Only one man can take the decision to bury Lenin - our president,” Stanislav tells me.

“只有一个人能做出让列宁遗体下葬的决定,那就是我们的总统”,斯坦尼斯拉夫向我说到。

 

 

He raises an interesting point. If Lenin’s body is removed from Red Square, does that mean all the other bodies interred there should be taken away, too?

斯坦尼斯拉夫所说的,牵涉到一个有趣的话题。若列宁的遗体从红场移走,是不是也就意味着,那里葬着的其他所有遗体,也都应该被移走?

 

There are lots of them. More than 200 revolutionaries lie in a mass grave on Red Square. Also buried beside the Kremlin are dozens of Soviet leaders, scientists, military commanders and cosmonauts.

在那里葬着的遗体有很多。有200多位革命战士葬于红场。还有,葬在克里姆林宫旁边的,也有数十位苏联领导人、科学家、军队指挥官以及宇航员。

 

“One idea may be to bury Lenin inside the mausoleum,” suggests Stanislav. “This would partly satisfy those people who say his body should be in the ground, and those who want him to stay on Red Square. I back this option.”

“有个方案或许可行,那就是把列宁的遗体就埋在那个棺椁的下边”,斯坦尼斯拉夫这样说道,“这样的话,就能让一部分那些说列宁的遗体应该在地面之下的人满意,也能让一部分想要列宁遗体继续留在红场的人满意。我个人也支持这种办法。”

 

The Orthodox Church takes a different view.

东正教会则持有不同的观点。

 

“He should be buried. Not because he deserves a Christian funeral - he was anti-Christian. But because this symbol of the revolution should find its proper place - not on Red Square and not in a mausoleum,” says Metropolitan Hilarion.

“应该让遗体下葬,不是因为他值得享有一场基督式葬礼,因为他是反基督的,而是因为,那场革命的这个象征物,应该到它适合自己的地方,那个地方,不是红场,也不是红场上的那个棺椁”,教区负责人希拉里昂这样说道。

 

“I regret his burial was not conducted in the early 1990s, when it would have been easier to do. It is more difficult now. There will be protests. The Communist Party is strongly against this. But I believe it is only a matter of time before he is buried. This should be done sooner or later.” 

“很遗憾,1990年代早期没能让列宁遗体下葬,当时做的话,会容易很多,现在做,难度更高,会有反对抗议,俄共对此也坚决反对。不过,我相信,列宁遗体下葬只是个时间问题,早晚会让列宁的遗体下葬的。”

 

“Lenin lived! Lenin lives! Lenin willlive!” proclaimed a famous Soviet slogan.

“列宁过去活着!列宁现在仍然活着!列宁将来永远活着!”苏联时期一个著名的宣传口号这样称。

 

 

In a way, he does live on - in the thousands of Lenin statues, Lenin Avenues and Lenin Squares that exist in Russia to this day; in his mausoleum beside the Kremlin; in the hearts of committed communists. But the shadow he casts over Russia is fading

某种意义上讲,列宁确实还活着,活在成千上万尊的列宁塑像中,活在以列宁命名的列宁大街和列宁广场上,活在克里姆林宫傍边的棺椁里,活在忠贞的共产主义者的心中。不过,列宁留给俄罗斯的影响,却正日趋渐淡。

 

 

Whether or not his body remains in Red Square, to most Russians now the man who made the revolution is like those statues I saw in the park - a ghost from a lost world.

不管列宁的遗体是否能留在红场,对绝大多数俄罗斯民众来说,现在列宁这位曾主导那场革命的领导人,和我在公园里见到的那些塑像一样,就像是源自悠远历史中的一个幽灵。


往期精彩:


红色记忆|《历史在荡漾》:百年记忆之“圣彼得堡篇”

表达的艺术|《概念摄影》:有人的地方,就有思想的力量,

新书速递|《经济学人》:历史是一个姑娘,每人都能是化妆师

普京大帝|《经济学人》:俄罗斯明年总统大选,毫无悬念

普京政权|《全球脑库》:普京正在失去他对权力的掌控?

第三性|《BBC》:德国最高法院做出裁决,认可第三性别

天宫一号|《BBC》:已失去控制,降落时间、位置现难定 

睡眠与健康|《BBC》:关于睡眠,你应知道的十件事儿

深度报告|《世界经济论坛》:实现男女平等,还要再等100年

诗图一家|《远观中国》:只身远在萨摩亚,心魂牵系新中国

 

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