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红色记忆|《历史在荡漾》:百年记忆之“叶卡捷琳堡篇”

2017-11-14 从余启 我与我们的世界 我与我们的世界


欢迎打开“我与我们的世界”,从此,让我们一起“纵览世界之风云变幻、洞察社会之脉搏律动、感受个体之生活命运、挖掘自然之点滴奥妙”。

我与我们的世界,既是一个“奋斗”的世界,也是一个“思考”的世界。奋而不思则罔,思而不奋则殆。这个世界,你大,它就大;你小,它就小。

欢迎通过上方公众号名称打开公众号“查看历史消息”来挖掘往期文章,因为,每期都能让你“走近”不一样的世界、带给你不一样的精彩


本期导读:叶卡捷琳堡(Yekaterinburg),始建于1723年,以圣凯瑟琳为名,纪念彼得大帝之妻、沙皇叶卡捷琳娜一世(并非凯瑟琳大帝),位于乌拉尔山脉东麓,伊塞特河由西北向东南穿城而过。


叶卡捷琳堡是俄罗斯乌拉尔联邦区中心城市、斯维尔德洛夫斯克州首府,2012年人口为 1,398,889,在俄罗斯各大城市中仅次于莫斯科、圣彼得堡和新西伯利亚。


叶卡捷琳堡历来都是俄罗斯重要的交通枢纽、工业基地和科教中心,别称“乌拉尔之都”( City of Ural),现亦为俄罗斯中央军区司令部所在地。


1918年,末代沙皇尼古拉二世一家被迁至叶卡捷琳堡的伊帕提夫之屋(Ipatiev House)。末代沙皇一家稍后在该地被杀害,后来此屋被拆除,现为滴血教堂。


1924至1991年该城被称为斯维尔德洛夫斯克(Sverdlovsk),以纪念布尔什维克领袖雅可夫·斯维尔德洛夫。此地也是中华民国前总统蒋经国早年在苏俄工作并结识妻子蒋方良之处。



In the shadow of Red October

红色十月之百年印记


A century ago, the Bolsheviks seized power in Russia and created the world’s first Marxist state. 

一百年前,布尔什维克夺取了俄政权,创建了世上首个马克思主义国家。


The dramatic events of 1917 still reverberate. 

一个世纪之前1917年发生的剧变,至今仍在回荡。


But what legacy of the revolution can be seen in four cities in Vladimir Putin's Russia?

不过,百年前的那次革命,在当下普京统治的俄罗斯,都会有什么样的印迹呢?下面就让我们通过四个城市,窥斑见豹。



The sainted family

神圣家族


Outside Yekaterinburg, autumn has carpeted the forest with golden leaves. All around me, silver birches seem to be whispering, as their leaves rustle in the breeze.

叶卡捷琳堡城外,秋意甚浓,层层树林,尽染金黄。我的周围,银桦树像是在窃窃私语,微风于树叶中穿梭,沙沙作响。


It is so beautiful here - like walking through a Russian fairy tale.

这里是如此漂亮,就像身处俄式童话故事之中。


Then, through the trees, I spot something that jars with the magical setting - an Orthodox cross. It marks the place of a grim discovery - the remains of Russia’s last tsar, Nicholas II, and his family. The Bolsheviks had murdered them, mutilated their bodies, and disposed of their victims in a shallow grave in the forest.

随之,透过树林,我看到与童话场景不那么相搭的一件东西,一个东正教十字架。而这个十字架所在的地方,就是俄国最后一位沙皇尼古拉二世及其家人的遗体被发现的地方。布尔什维克们杀了他们之后,还肢解了他们的遗体,然后把残骸浅浅地掩埋在了树林中。



Pensioner Vladimir Kotlyakov is sweeping leaves and twigs away from the cross. He comes every day to keep this place tidy.

已经退休了的弗拉基米尔·克托亚科夫正在打扫落叶,并拿掉落在十字架上的树枝。他每天都会来这里清扫这片地方,让它保持干净整洁。



Nicholas II believed he had a God-given right to rule Russia. But frustrated by food shortages and setbacks in World War One, his subjects reached a different conclusion.

尼古拉二世相信,他拥有神授之权来统治俄国。但他所统治的民众,因食物短缺、一战节节败退而感到灰心丧气,并进而得出结论不认为是那样。


Following the February Revolution, Nicholas was forced to abdicate. His brother refused the throne - three centuries of Romanov rule were over.

二月革命后,尼古拉被迫退位,他的弟弟拒绝继承皇位,罗曼诺夫王朝长达三个世纪的统治由此结束。


Nicholas, his wife Alexandra and their five children - Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia and Alexei - were placed under house arrest near St Petersburg. Later they were moved to Siberia and, a few months after the October Revolution, transported to Yekaterinburg in the Ural Mountains.

尼古拉和他的妻子亚历山德拉以及他们的五个孩子,奥丽加、塔季扬娜、玛丽亚、安娜斯塔西亚和阿列克谢,被软禁在圣彼得堡近郊。之后,他们被运送到西伯利亚,十月革命几个月后,又被转运到乌拉尔山深处的叶卡捷琳堡。



They were locked inside the Ipatiev House. The Bolsheviks referred to it, ominously, as the House of Special Purpose. Around midnight on 17 July 1918, the Romanovs and four of their most loyal servants were taken down to the basement - for their own safety, they were told. There they were shot and bayoneted by a Bolshevik execution squad. It was a brutal, bloody end to the most powerful dynasty in modern European history.

他们被所在伊帕提夫之屋里面。布尔什维克们把这个屋子称为“特殊目的之屋”,似有不可告人之目的。1918年7月17日半夜,罗曼诺夫那一家子以及对他们最忠诚的四个仆人被带到地下室,他们被告知,说是为了他们的安全。就在地下室那里,他们被一个布尔什维克处决执行小组射杀、刺死。欧洲现代史上最具影响力的王朝,就这样以如此残忍、血腥的方式而告终。


The Soviets demolished the Ipatiev House in 1977 - an attempt to erase the memory of the tsar. But on the spot where the house stood, modern Russia has built a church.

苏联时期伊帕提夫之屋在1977年被拆,目的是为了抹去对那位沙皇的记忆。不过,在那个房子所在的地方,当代的俄罗斯在那里建造了一座教堂。



Painted on the walls of the Church on the Blood are scenes from Tsar Nicholas’s life, such as his coronation. At the front of the church an icon bears the faces of the tsar, tsarina and their children. The Orthodox Church has elevated them to sainthood.

滴血教堂的墙上,喷涂的都是沙皇尼古拉一生中的重要场景,包括他加冕时的场景。教堂的前部有副画像,上面画的有沙皇尼古拉、沙皇皇后以及他们的孩子们。那座东正教教堂已给他们一家子着上了圣人之色。


“The calamities Russia endured, the civil war, the 1930s terror, World War Two, they were all a punishment for what happened here,” Bishop Yevgeny of the Urals diocese tells me.

“俄罗斯所历经的灾难,包括内战,1930年代的白色恐怖,以及第二次世界大战等,所有这些,都是在为这里发生的事情所经受的惩罚”,乌拉尔教区主教叶甫根尼这样跟我说。


“Emperor Nicholas understood that God was above him. But the tsar’s killers saw themselves as gods. This sickness of the mind became the fever of the 20th Century.”

“沙皇尼古拉明白,上帝就在上方。但是,谋害沙皇的人却视他们自己为神。人们灵魂的这种病症,演变为了20世纪的系列灾难。”


In the 1990s, a Russian government commission concluded that the bones exhumed in the forest belonged to Nicholas, Alexandra and three of their children - Olga, Tatiana and Anastasia. They were laid to rest in St Petersburg.

1990年代,俄罗斯政府一个委员会得出结论,那片树林里挖掘出来的遗骨是尼古拉和亚历山德拉以及他们的三个孩子的,包括奥丽加、塔季扬娜与安娜斯塔西亚。 后来,他们被安葬在了圣彼得堡。


In 2007 what were believed to be the remains of Maria and Alexei were found. The Russian Orthodox Church demanded further tests and has yet to recognise these as the remains of the Romanovs. But when I spoke to him in Moscow, Metropolitan Hilarion indicated that there was “a very strong chance” the Church would do so in the near future.

2007年,据说是玛利亚和阿列克谢的遗骸也找到了。俄罗斯东正教会要求进行进一步测验,目前还没确认这些遗骸是否是罗曼诺夫家族的。不过,我在莫斯科与主教希拉里昂交谈时,希拉里昂表示,在不远的将来,东正教会“非常可能”会对此进行确认。



In a building next to the Church on the Blood, I attend a children’s choir rehearsal. Looking down from the wall is Nicholas II. His portrait provides inspiration to the young choristers.

滴血教堂旁的一个建筑里,我看到儿童唱诗班正在排练。墙上有尼古拉二世俯视的画像。尼古拉的画像,给年轻的唱诗班的领唱者们提供着灵感之源。


The tsar and his family set us a moral example that we try to follow,” Alexandra explains. “They believed in God so much, they suffered for it.”

“沙皇和他的家人,为我们树立了道德的榜样,我们会努力追随”,亚历山大德拉解释说,“他们是如此深信上帝,他们为此遭受了苦难。”


“I always think of him as the captain of a big ship called Russia,” says Anastasiya. “He was on this ship till the very end, till the country ended. He was so brave and I admire him.”

“我总觉得,他是一艘大船的船长,这艘船就是俄罗斯”,安娜斯塔西亚说到,“他就在这艘船上,直到最后一刻,直到国家结束,他是如此勇敢,我很崇拜他。”



It is an idealised and somewhat distorted image of Russia’s last tsar. For, if Nicholas II was the captain, does he not bear some responsibility for the sinking of imperial Russia?

俄国末代沙皇所具有的这种形象,有点太过理想化,也有点扭曲变形。因为,如果说尼古拉二世是船长的话,那么他是否也应该为沙俄帝国这艘船的沉没担负一定责任呢?


It was the tsar’s soldiers who fired on peaceful protesters outside the Winter Palace in 1905. It was Nicholas who brought the mystic and faith-healer Grigory Rasputin into the royal court. As a private adviser to the Romanovs, the renegade monk interfered in matters of state and further damaged the prestige of the monarchy.

正是那位沙皇的士兵在1905年向冬宫外和平游行的人们开的枪,也是尼古拉本人他自己把那位神秘的所谓的信仰拯救者拉斯普京引入了宫廷。作为罗曼诺夫王朝的私人顾问,拉斯普京这位“魔僧”干预国家事务,并进而败坏了君主的威望。



Nicholas’s decision to take personal command of the tsarist army in World War One proved disastrous. And ever the inflexible autocrat, the tsar was incapable of steering Russia clear of revolution.

尼古拉在第一次世界大战期间决定自己亲自掌管沙俄军权导致了灾难。而且,作为一名从不会妥协的专制君主,尼古拉这位沙皇已没有能力让沙俄逃过革命的风暴。


The Provisional Government that took over from him made mistakes, too. But ultimately, the Bolsheviks seized power in a country that had been weakened by years of imperial mismanagement.

从尼古拉手里夺到权力的临时政府也做出了错误决定。不过最终,国家的权力被布尔什维克们夺走,当时的俄国,由于多年皇权管理不善已经疲弱不堪。


In post-communist Russia, it is not only the tsar who is enjoying a revival. So is the church. In 1989, Russia had 6,000 Orthodox churches. Today there are more than 36,000.

在后共产时代的俄罗斯,有复兴征兆的,不仅是沙皇,东正教也在复兴。1989年,俄罗斯有6000座东正教教堂,而现今,俄罗斯的东正教教堂已超过36000座。



Formerly a pillar of tsarist autocracy, Orthodoxy once again enjoys a close connection to the state. As the Kremlin strives to shape a new national ideology around patriotism and ultra-conservative values, the Church is playing a key role.

之前,东正教曾是沙皇专制的一个支柱,现在又一次走近了国家权力。随着克里姆林宫努力构建一套以爱国主义和极端保守价值为基础的新型国家意识形态,东正教在其中正扮演着关键角色。


In a school playground on the edge of Yekaterinburg, I watch children practising traditional Cossack sword-spinning. The school, which has built its own church, is one of several in the area where education is centred on piety, patriotism and a glorious past.

叶卡捷琳堡城边的一个学校操场上,我看到有孩子在练习传统的哥萨克舞剑运动。那所学校拥有自己的教堂,在该区域,还有好几所这样的学校。学校的教育也都非常强调虔诚、爱国以及辉煌的历史。



“We are rediscovering our culture of a century ago, not just with swords, but with songs and dances,” 14-year-old Nikolai tells me. “But for me, faith is the most important thing in life - it is the reason we are here.”

“我们正在对我们百年之前的文化进行重新发现,不仅仅是舞剑,还有歌曲和舞蹈等”,14岁的尼古拉告诉我说,“但是对我而言,信仰是生命中最最重要的事情,这也是我们出现在这里的原因。”


I talk to the school director, Alexei Solovyov. He recalls that in Soviet times, when atheism was an official state doctrine, only one church was open in Yekaterinburg, or Sverdlovsk, as it was known under communism. It is a city of more than a million people.

我也和校长阿列克谢·索洛维约夫进行了交谈。阿列克谢回忆说,在苏联时代,当时无神论是国家官方意识形态,在叶卡捷琳堡只有一座教堂,当时共产时代叶卡捷琳堡这座城市的名字还是斯维尔德洛夫斯克。现在这里的人口有一百多万。


“Outside the church there were always police in civilian clothes,” recalls Alexei. “They didn’t harass the old people. But any young people that went up to the door were taken aside for a conversation.”

“那时,教堂外面总会有便衣警察驻守”,阿列克谢回忆说,“他们不会骚扰上了年纪的人,不过,如果有年轻人向教堂门口走去的话,就会被带到一边问话。”


Yet communism failed to replace God in Russians’ hearts.

不过,共产理想最终还是没能把俄罗斯民众心里的上帝给替换掉。



My great-grandmother was a communist,” Alexei recalls. “She worked as a cook. She even cooked for Tsar Nikolai’s killers in the Ipatiev House. But in the 1930s she was a victim of Stalin’s purges. She spent five years in the gulag for being a ‘Trotskyite’. When she came out, she ditched all that revolutionary hype and turned to religion.”

“我的曾祖母就是一个共产主义者”,阿列克谢回忆说,“她是位厨师,甚至曾在伊帕提夫之屋里给杀害沙皇尼古拉的几个人做过饭。不过,到了1930年代,她就成为了斯大林清洗的一个受害者,在集中营里被监禁了五年,罪名是‘托洛茨基分子’。从集中营出来后,她抛弃了所有那些宏大的革命理想,重归了宗教信仰。”


But if Russians are looking to the past to shape their future, might they decide to restore the monarchy? That is unlikely.

不过,如果俄罗斯人准备从历史中探索未来的方向,那么他们是不是要决定恢复君主专制?但是,这也太不可能了。


“Monarchy is a good way of governing,” schoolteacher Olga tells me. “But times have changed. Anyway, our president is a man who kind of governs the way the tsar tried to govern. He is a real ruler, a real patriot. He doesn’t allow other countries to humiliate our citizens.”

“君主专制是一种很好的治理方式”,一位名叫奥尔加的学校老师告诉我说,“不过,时代已经变了,不管怎样,我们的总统就是按照沙皇的管制模式进行治理国家的,他是一位真正的统治者,一位真正的爱国者,他不会容许其他国家欺负我们的国民。”



Back in the forest, where the bones of Nicholas II were found, Vladimir Kotlyakov seems confused.

回到那片发现尼古拉二世遗骸的那片树林时,弗拉基米尔·克托亚科夫显得有点困惑。


Russia needs a tsar. I’m fed up with disorder here. ‘President’ isn’t a Russian word. ‘Tsar’ – now that’s a Russian word! Let the people choose a tsar.”

“俄罗斯需要一位沙皇,我已彻底厌恶了这里的混乱无序。‘总统’不是俄语词汇,‘沙皇’才是俄语词汇!应该让人民选一位沙皇。”


My trip to Yekaterinburg has reminded me that Russia is a country of extremes.

我在叶卡捷琳娜堡转的这一圈,让我感到,俄罗斯是一个充满极端性的国家。


It is a country that can leap from “Down with the Tsar!” to “Saint Nicholas”; from destroying churches to building them; from communism to capitalism; from freezing winters to boiling hot summers.

俄罗斯这个国家,历经了从“沙皇尼古拉下台!”到“圣人尼古拉”,从拆毁教堂到重建教堂,从共产主义到资本主义,从冰冷的寒冬到火热的盛夏。


It is a country of contradictions.

俄罗斯这个国家,充满矛盾。


往期精彩:


红色记忆|《历史在荡漾》:百年记忆之“圣彼得堡篇”

红色记忆|《历史在荡漾》:百年记忆之“莫斯科篇”

表达的艺术|《概念摄影》:有人的地方,就有思想的力量,

新书速递|《经济学人》:历史是一个姑娘,每人都能是化妆师

普京大帝|《经济学人》:俄罗斯明年总统大选,毫无悬念

普京政权|《全球脑库》:普京正在失去他对权力的掌控?

第三性|《BBC》:德国最高法院做出裁决,认可第三性别

中亚一瞥|《BBC》:中亚大国哈萨克斯坦要转换字母系统

中国故事|《世纪之变》:百年光影,忽闪而过,尽在不言

诗图一家|《远观中国》:只身远在萨摩亚,心魂牵系新中国


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