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红色记忆|《历史在荡漾》:百年记忆之“哈巴罗夫斯克篇”

2017-11-15 从余启 我与我们的世界 我与我们的世界


欢迎打开“我与我们的世界”,从此,让我们一起“纵览世界之风云变幻、洞察社会之脉搏律动、感受个体之生活命运、挖掘自然之点滴奥妙”。

我与我们的世界,既是一个“奋斗”的世界,也是一个“思考”的世界。奋而不思则罔,思而不奋则殆。这个世界,你大,它就大;你小,它就小。

欢迎通过上方公众号名称打开公众号“查看历史消息”来挖掘往期文章,因为,每期都能让你“走近”不一样的世界、带给你不一样的精彩


本期导读:“哈巴罗夫斯克”(Khabarovsk),即中文所称的伯力,位于黑龙江及乌苏里江交界处东侧,中俄边界处,北距海参崴800千米,为俄罗斯联邦远东联邦管区行政中心、哈巴罗夫斯克边疆区首府。其俄文名源于俄国人叶罗费·帕夫洛维奇·哈巴罗夫。1989年苏联人口普查时该城的人口数量为600,623 人,2002年人口普查的人口数量为583,072 人。


伯力之名始于唐朝,西元722年,唐玄宗任命黑水靺鞨酋长倪属利稽为勃利刺史,并将黑水都督府勃利州治所设于今日的哈巴罗夫斯克。到了辽朝,勃利改名为博和哩,并设有五国部节度使,辖黑龙江下游各部。


十五世纪时明朝在此设巴忽鲁卫,隶属于奴儿干都司。后金汗国(清朝前身)清太宗崇德八年(1643年)在此设博和哩噶珊。颇黎、勃利、博和哩、剖阿里都是伯力、伯利的谐音,来源于部落名博和哩(满语:ᠪᠣᡥᠣᡵᡳ,穆麟德:Bohori)。据《满洲源流考》卷11《疆域》载:“博和哩,满洲语,豌豆也”。


1858年,俄国沙皇亚历山大二世派遣东西伯利亚总督穆拉维约夫侵占中国黑龙江沿岸并在此设军事哨所。穆拉维约夫为纪念十七世纪俄国探险家叶罗费·帕夫洛维奇·哈巴罗夫在远东地区的探勘行动,将伯力改称为“哈巴罗夫卡”。随着居民点的扩大,1883年10月又改为“哈巴罗夫斯克”。俄文名称便来源于此。


第二次鸦片战争时,根据1860年《中俄北京条约》,原属清朝位于黑龙江及乌苏里江交界处东侧40多万平方公里土地,连同库页岛一并割让予俄国,伯力遂属俄境。此后,中方又后退于牡丹江流域另建"勃利",以延续"伯利"之统辖边疆功能,即今七台河市的勃利县。



In the shadow of Red October

红色十月之百年印记


A century ago, the Bolsheviks seized power in Russia and created the world’s first Marxist state. 

一百年前,布尔什维克夺取了俄政权,创建了世上首个马克思主义国家。


The dramatic events of 1917 still reverberate. 

一个世纪之前1917年发生的剧变,至今仍在回荡。


But what legacy of the revolution can be seen in four cities in Vladimir Putin's Russia?

不过,百年前的那次革命,在当下普京统治的俄罗斯,都会有什么样的印迹呢?下面就让我们通过四个城市,窥斑见豹。



October's son

十月之子


The Russian Revolution hadn’t even happened when Lev Lipovich was born.

列夫·力波维奇出生时,俄国革命还没开始。


By the time the Bolsheviks had seized the Winter Palace, Lev was already seven months old.

等到布尔什维克们攻占冬宫,列夫已7个月大了。


A hundred years of Russian history are etched into his face.

俄罗斯过往的百年历史,就镌刻在列夫脸上的深深皱纹里。



I fought in four wars, and I survived three famines,” Lev tells me with a hint of pride.

“我参加过四场战争,经历过三次饥荒”,列夫这样和我说,语气中带着些许骄傲。


We are sitting in his tiny apartment in the city of Khabarovsk, the capital of the Russian Far East. Out of the window you can see the point where the two great rivers of eastern Russia meet - the Amur and the Ussuri.

我们坐在他位于俄罗斯远东联邦区首府哈巴罗夫斯克的小公寓里。窗外就能看到俄罗斯东部两条重要河流阿穆尔河与乌苏里江的汇合点。


On the roads here there are few Russian-built cars - it is cheaper for people to buy right-hand drives from Japan. The border with China is just 25km from here.

这里路上跑的汽车,几乎都不是俄罗斯生产的。日本产的右边驾驶的汽车,更便宜。从这里到中国的边境,也只有25公里。


Red Square feels a world away. And we are more than 6,000km (3,700 miles) from the cradle of the October Revolution, St Petersburg.

莫斯科红场,给人的感觉很是遥远。而这里与十月革命的摇篮圣彼得堡之间的距离,有6000多公里。



I am a son of October,” he explains. “To me, Revolution Day - 7 November - is my second birthday because I see that as the day the USSR was born.”

“我是位十月之子”,他解释说,“对我来说,革命日那天,即11月7日,是我的第二个生日,因为,在我看来,那天是苏联的诞生日。”


Lev was born in the Crimea in April 1917. When he was 11, his parents sent him to a factory boarding school.

列夫于1917年4月出生在克里米亚,11岁时被父母送到一个工厂寄宿学校。


“For my first 20 years my motherland fed me, clothed me, put shoes on my feet. It gave me an education. When I joined the army, I started to repay my debt to my country.”

“我生命中的前20年,我的祖国让我有东西吃,有衣服穿,有鞋子穿,还有,让我接受教育。当我参军后,我开始了回报我的国家。”


At the age of 15, Lev learnt to fly. He became a fighter pilot. His first experience of battle was the Winter War between the Soviet Union and Finland; he fought in World War Two, what Russians refer to as the Great Patriotic War; in 1945 he flew missions against Japan and in North Korea.

15岁时,列夫开始学驾驶飞机,然后就成了一位战机飞行员。列夫首次实地作战经历是在苏联和芬兰之间进行的那场“冬季战争”。他也参加了第二次世界大战,俄罗斯称之为伟大的爱国战争。1945年,他执行作战任务抵抗日本,包括在朝鲜的作战任务。



He concedes he is lucky to be alive. While battling Nazi Germany, he was shot down over the Baltic Sea.

列夫觉得,能活下来实在是幸运。与纳粹德国作战时,他曾在波罗的海的上空被击落。


“The shell hit my right engine,” he recalls. “No sooner had I catapulted out, the plane burst into flames. For four hours I struggled in the water. Then a Soviet submarine spotted me and pulled me out.”

“炮弹击中了我右侧的引擎”,列夫回忆说,“我跳出逃生后,飞机立即爆炸变成了火球。我在海水里挣扎了长达有四个小时。后来一艘苏联潜艇发现了我,然后就把我从海中捞了出来。”


In peacetime Lev switched to civil aviation. In his 47 years as a pilot, he recorded an astonishing 36,000 flight hours - the equivalent of four years in the air.

战后的和平年代,列夫转开民航飞机。在他47年的飞行员生涯中,列夫的飞行时长有36000个小时,着实令人震惊,这相当于在空中飞了有四年。


Lev opens a folder and takes out a faded certificate - it is an official letter of thanks to him from Joseph Stalin. He speaks fondly of the Soviet dictator.

列夫打开一个文件夹,从里面拿出来一个已有点褪色的证书,这个证书是一份官方函件,是斯大林为了向他表达谢意而特意给他的。列夫说起苏联的那位独裁者时,语气中充满深情。



“On the side of my warplane were these words: 'For the motherland! For Stalin!'

“我驾驶的战机的机体上,有这样的标语:‘为了祖国!为了斯大林!’”


“But what about the repressions?” I ask. “What about Stalin’s terror?”

“不过,他的那些镇压清洗您怎么看?”我问到,“斯大林的恐怖统治您怎么看?”


“You don’t understand,” he says dismissively. “Stalin was a patriot. He was an intelligent, modest, iron man.”

“你不明白”,列夫以轻蔑的语气回答说,“斯大林是一个爱国主义者,他非常智慧,非常谦卑,是个硬汉。”


He tells me how he thinks Russians have survived a century of drama and bloodshed.

列夫也跟我说了,在他眼里,俄罗斯国民是如何熬过长达一个世纪之久的动荡又血腥的年代的。


“Because our people are strong; we are patriotic; we love our land and we are ready to die for it.”

“因为我们的人民非常强大,我们非常爱国,我们热爱我们的土地,我们时刻准备着为了她而献出自己的生命。”


Lev talks at length about the USSR’s military encounters with foreign powers. Yet when he was a child, Russians were fighting Russians. The civil war that followed the revolution divided families across the country - it was bloody and brutal. Forces loyal to the Bolsheviks, the Reds, were battling the opponents of communism, the Whites. Not until 1922 did the Bolsheviks finally establish control over the Far East.

列夫谈了很多苏联和其他强国之间的军事故事,不过,当他还是个孩子时,俄罗斯正在内讧。那次革命后随之而来的内战导致妻离子散,家人不能相见,血腥又残忍。支持布尔什维克的红军与反对共产的白军互相厮杀,直到1922年,布尔什维克才最终控制了远东地区。



The decisive battle of the civil war took place near Khabarovsk, on a hill by the village of Volochaevka. When the Reds won, the victors did all they could to make sure that history would record them as the heroes.

对内战具有决定性的那场战斗,就发生在哈巴罗夫斯克附近一个名叫沃洛察艾夫卡的村庄旁边的山上。红军胜利后,胜利者们极尽所能,以确保他们在历史记录中是以英雄面目出现。


Soviet artists produced a 43m-long panoramic painting of the battle to proclaim the victory of communism. It was celebrated in song, too. A military march about Volochaevka became one of the most popular numbers in the Red Army Choir’s repertoire.

针对那场战斗,苏联的艺术家们创作了一副43米长的全景画作,以赞扬共产的胜利。歌曲中,也不乏此类赞扬之声。关于沃洛察艾夫卡的一首军队进行曲,就成为红军合唱曲目中最受欢迎的曲目之一。


On the battle site, a museum was built to honour the heroism and sacrifice of the pro-Soviet soldiers. A memorial plaque referred to 118 Reds in a communal grave. There was no mention of the Whites who died here.

那场战斗故地,还建起了一座博物馆,以对亲苏士兵们的英雄主义和牺牲精神表示敬意。那里也有一块为118位集体安葬的红军士兵所立的纪念碑,而关于也在这里丧命的白军士兵,丝毫未提。



Yet as post-communist Russia begins to look more critically at the revolution, the official interpretation of the civil war, too, is changing.

不过,随着后共产时代的俄罗斯开始以更为挑剔的态度来看待那场革命,官方对那场内战的诠释,也在悄然改变。


On Volochaevka hill today the museum is closed; the building is crumbling. The Orthodox Church has erected a small chapel here - a sign that this area is no longer a communist shrine.

沃洛察艾夫卡那座山上的博物馆,现今已关掉了,那栋建筑也开始失修破败。现在,那里已建起一座东正教小教堂,这也就象征着,这个地方已不再是属于共产的殿堂。


At the local high school, children are taught that the civil war was a tragedy for all Russians, with no “good guys” or “bad guys”. The school museum recounts the battle of Volochaevka in neutral tones. On display here are rusting bayonets, bullet casings and guns from the battle, found by students in the forest.

当地一所高中,孩子们所学到的是,对所有俄罗斯人来说,内战是一场悲剧,没有“好人”或“坏人”。该学校的博物馆也以较为中性的叙事语调,对沃洛察艾夫卡那场战斗进行重新叙述。博物馆里展示的,有些生锈了的刺刀、弹壳和枪支,都是学生们在曾经战斗过的那片森林里找到的。


It would be wrong to show a bias for the Reds or the Whites,” teacher Alexei Zaitsev tells me. “We try to find a middle way and recount this historical event through facts.”

“若对红军或白军有任何偏见,都是错误的”,教师阿列克谢·扎伊采夫向我说到,“我们努力找到一种中间道路,让事实来叙述那场历史事件。”


The school museum is open to the public. But not all the visitors appreciate the revised history.

那所学校博物馆对公众开放,但不是所有到访者都对历史进行这样的重新叙述表示赞赏。


“It wasn’t that long ago that the Soviet Union disappeared,” Alexei reminds me. “Some of our visitors still support the USSR and don’t like what we say now about the Whites.”

“苏联倒台,过去的时间还不长”,阿列克谢提醒我说,“有些访客依然支持苏联,我们现在关于白军的叙事,不大怎么合他们的胃口。”



Like shifting sands, the past in Russia seems to change right under your feet. One moment Russians are being told to praise “Great October”; the next they are being told the revolution was not so great after all. One day religion is the “opium of the people”; the next it is the life and soul of Russia. So often here the past is rewritten, reinterpreted, reshaped, depending on who is in power.

就像流沙一样,俄罗斯的过往感觉就在脚下发生变化。曾几何时,俄罗斯人被告知要歌颂“伟大的十月”,然后,他们又被告知那场革命并没有那么伟大。曾几何时,宗教被称为“人民的鸦片”,然后,宗教又被当成俄罗斯的生命和灵魂。历史,会因掌权者不同,一次又一次被改写、被重释、被重塑,而且是如此之频繁。


Back in Khabarovsk, I meet three generations of one family strolling in the park: 13-year-old Sofia, her mother, Anna, and grandmother, Nina.

回到哈巴罗夫斯克后,一个公园里我碰到一家三代正在散步:13岁的索菲亚,她的母亲安娜以及她的祖母妮娜。


It’s difficult when history changes,” Anna tells me. “It’s hard for youngsters to understand what is good and what is bad. TV says one thing, parents say another and teachers say something else.”

“历史变动时,会很难”,安娜告诉我说,“很难让年轻人明白什么是好,什么是坏。电视上说一套,父母口中是另一套,而学校老师则可能是又另一套。”


“Yes,” says Sofia. “It’s hard to know which opinion is the right one.”

“确实是这样”,索菲亚说到,“很难知道,到底是哪套是对的,是正确的。”


“Then again, it’s always been like this in Russia,” reflects Anna. “Every 50 years everything changes here. We cope.”

“变了一次又一次,在俄罗斯,总是这样”,安娜若有所思地说到,“这里,每50年,一切都会来场彻底变化,我们则只能努力适应”。



On the banks of the Amur river, I chat to pensioner Alexander Vasilievich. He is clearly struggling to make sense of Russia’s past.

阿穆尔河岸边,我和已经退休了的亚历山大·瓦西里耶维奇聊了起来,很显然,他对俄罗斯过往的历史,很是困惑。


Alexander accuses the man who led the October Revolution of hoodwinking the people.

亚历山大指责那位十月革命的领导人欺骗蒙蔽人民。


“Lenin promised land to the peasants and factories to the workers. But he didn’t deliver.”

“列宁承诺把土地给农民,把工厂给工人,但他却没做到。”


He remembers how empty the shops were in Khabarovsk in Soviet times.

亚历山大现在依然记得,苏联时期,哈巴罗夫斯克的商店里是有多空。


I used to fly to Moscow to buy shoes,” he admits. And yet Alexander is nostalgic about the communist past.

“我过去买双鞋,都需要飞到莫斯科去买”,亚历山大这样说到。不过,亚历山大也有点怀念共产时代。


I want it all back as it was. Back then I always had a job and a decent salary. Workers had more social protection, too, than now.”

“我想一切都重回到过去那个样子。那时候,我不会失业,工资水平也还行。与现在比起来,那时候,工人们也能得到更多保障。”


“Not under Stalin, surely?” I reply. “What about the terror?”

“不是斯大林时代,你确定?”我问到,“你如何看白色恐怖?”


Who on earth knows who was right back then and who was wrong?” he answers.

“谁知道那时谁对谁错?”亚历山大答道。


“Who on earth knows…?” is not the kind of question you will hear from 100-year-old Lev Lipovich. I suspect he will always see himself as a “son of October” and retain an iron belief in the revolution and its ideals.

“谁知道……?”这样的问题,你是不会听到从百岁高龄的列夫·力波维奇的口中说出来的。我觉得,在他的心目中,列夫会始终认为自己是“十月之子”,而且会保持他对那场革命及其理想的信仰。


But on my journey across Russia I have met many people who feel confused and disoriented by the current reinterpretation of history. For life is not easy in a country where not only the future is unpredictable, but also the past.

不过,我在俄罗斯采访旅行期间,碰到很多人,他们都觉得现在对历史的重新诠释有点让人摸不着头脑,有点迷失方向。毕竟,在一个不仅未来不可预测而且过去也不可预测的国家,过活是不易的。


往期精彩:


红色记忆|《历史在荡漾》:百年记忆之“圣彼得堡篇”

红色记忆|《历史在荡漾》:百年记忆之“莫斯科篇”

红色记忆|《历史在荡漾》:百年记忆之“叶卡捷琳堡篇”

表达的艺术|《概念摄影》:有人的地方,就有思想的力量,

新书速递|《经济学人》:历史是一个姑娘,每人都能是化妆师

普京大帝|《经济学人》:俄罗斯明年总统大选,毫无悬念

普京政权|《全球脑库》:普京正在失去他对权力的掌控?

中国故事|《世纪之变》:百年光影,忽闪而过,尽在不言

陆克文谈中国|《全球脑库》:当中国领导世界。。。

诗图一家|《远观中国》:只身远在萨摩亚,心魂牵系新中国


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