Quantcast

편의점 샛별이 5화

人间怪事!刚要检查!各地粮库纷纷起火

편의점 샛별이 7화

刚刚,“地摊经济”又有新动向!关系到每个人!

深度解读 | 姜文《让子弹飞》

Facebook Twitter

分享到微信朋友圈

点击图标下载本文截图到手机
即可分享到朋友圈。如何使用?

为了鼓励更多的人参与到自由互联网的开发,我们最新推出了GreatFire悬赏计划,请参赛者在下列任务中任选其中一个或多个,完成其中的任务目标,即可获得对应金额的奖励。
查看原文

《津巴布韦》:穆加贝宣布辞职,津巴布韦迎来“新时代”

2017-11-22 从余启 我与我们的世界 我与我们的世界

【世界决定视界】【视界决定世界】

欢迎打开“我与我们的世界”,从此,让我们一起“纵览世界之风云变幻、洞察社会之脉搏律动、感受个体之生活命运、挖掘自然之点滴奥妙”。

我与我们的世界,既是一个“奋斗”的世界,也是一个“思考”的世界。奋而不思则罔,思而不奋则殆。这个世界,你大,它就大;你小,它就小。

欢迎通过上方公众号名称打开公众号“查看历史消息”来挖掘往期文章,因为,每期都能让你“走近”不一样的世界、带给你不一样的精彩


本期导读:津巴布韦共和国(Republic of Zimbabwe)是非洲南部的内陆国家,地处赞比西河与林波波河之间,南接南非,西部和西南与博兹瓦纳接壤,西北与赞比亚接壤,东部和东北与莫桑比克相邻,尽管津巴布韦与纳米比亚无领土接壤,但是在赞比西河河岸两国仅相隔200余米相望。津巴布韦于1980年4月18日独立建国,面积39万余平方公里,最大城市和首都为哈拉雷。


津巴布韦人口的组成在立国后变化巨大,独立时总人口690万,其中约30万(当时约占5.5%)是白人统治阶级,但因为土地改革政策使白人大量移民他国后,目前白人仅剩不到数万人,且多在欧美境外居留。由于黑人极高的生育力,津巴布韦人口暴增至约1415万(2013年),黑人已占总人口的99%以上,主要有绍纳族(占79%)和恩德贝莱族(占17%)两大民族。


津巴布韦原本是名为罗得西亚的由白人统治的国家,这个名字源自于替英国在这个地区建立殖民地的塞西尔·罗兹,进入20世纪后由伊安·史密斯领导,接受南非政权的援助,展开白人少数统治并抵抗共产游击队而知名。


罗得西亚因天候宜人,当时的物产多以农产品为主,当时白人农场主因此地富饶,有“阿非利加面包篮”美誉,并建立了欧洲式首都哈拉雷,原名索尔兹伯里,是罗德斯在1890年时建立的贸易集散城市,为非洲中部经济大城之一。


1980年之后白人少数统治被推翻,进入了津巴布韦时代,但同时经济却遭遇严重通货膨胀,产量已经下跌不足以供养国民,今改以从外国进口食品为主,官方则提到殖民是导致津巴布韦持续贫穷的主要原因,该国总统为多次连任成功的罗伯特·穆加贝,也是津巴布韦建国的革命家。



Zimbabwe's Robert Mugabe resigns, ending 37-year rule

津巴布韦总统穆加贝辞职,结束37年统治



Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe has resigned, parliament speaker Jacob Mudenda has said.

津巴布韦议会发言人表示,津巴布韦总统穆加贝已辞职。


A letter from Mr Mugabe said the decision was voluntary and he had made it to allow a smooth transfer of power.

穆加贝信函中表示,辞职决定是自愿的,做出此决定的目的是为了确保权力交接顺利进行。


The surprise announcement halted an impeachment hearing that had begun against him and sparked wild celebrations on the nation's streets.

穆加贝突然宣布辞职,令人感到意外,这也就中止了针对穆加贝的弹劾。针对穆加贝启动弹劾程序,在全国范围内激起大规模街头庆祝。


The ruling Zanu-PF party says former vice-president Emmerson Mnangagwa will succeed Mr Mugabe, in power since 1980.

执政党表示,前副总统姆南加古瓦将接任总统。


Mr Mnangagwa's sacking earlier this month triggered a political crisis.

正是本月早些时候前副总统姆南加古瓦被革职导致了政治危机。


It had been seen by many as an attempt to clear the way for Grace Mugabe to succeed her husband as leader and riled the military leadership, who stepped in and put Mr Mugabe under house arrest.

外界认为,副总统被革职,主要是为了为穆加贝老婆格蕾丝接替穆加贝扫清障碍,不过,此举激怒了军方,随之军方介入,软禁了穆加贝。


After the resignation announcement, lawmakers roared in jubilation.

穆加贝辞职宣布后,议员们欢呼雀跃。


Mr Mugabe, 93, was until his resignation the world's oldest leader. He had previously refused to quit despite last week's military takeover and days of protests.

现年93岁高龄的穆加贝直到他辞职之前,是世界上最年长的国家领导人。之前,尽管上周面临军方接管和街头抗议,穆加贝曾拒绝辞职。


视频截图


According to the constitution his successor should be the current vice-president, Phelekezela Mphoko, a supporter of Grace Mugabe.

根据宪法规定,穆加贝的继任者应为现任副总统姆佛科,而姆佛科支持格蕾丝。


But Zanu-PF chief whip Lovemore Matuke told Reuters news agency that Mr Mnangagwa would be in office "within 48 hours".

不过,执政党主席马图克向路透社表示,姆南加古瓦将于“48小时内”接任总统职位。


Speaking from an undisclosed location earlier on Tuesday, Mr Mnangagwa said he had fled abroad two weeks ago when he learned of a plot to kill him.

姆南加古瓦周二上午早些时候从一处未透露具体位置的地方表示,他两周前逃到国外是因为当时听说有人正谋划暗杀他。


An untypical end

非典型性方式下台



Most people assumed that the only way Robert Mugabe would give up being president was to die in his bed. He probably thought so too.

绝大多数人都觉得,穆加贝唯一的下台方式就是等他死了。他自己也很可能是这样觉得。


In fact the last of the old-style 1970s and 80s liberation leaders, most untypically, resigned in writing. Perhaps that says something about the way the world has changed in the 21st Century.

其实,1970年代和1980年代那一波民族解放独立运动领导人,大多情况下都是以非典型性方式下台,通过书面声明。或许,这样的一种现象,也显示着,21世纪的世界已经发生了变化。


No storming the presidential palace, no ugly end at the hands of a crowd like Col Gaddafi, no execution by firing squad like President Ceausescu of Romania, no hanging like Saddam Hussein.

没有针对总统官邸的进攻,没有像利比亚的卡扎菲惨死在一群人的手中,没有像罗马尼亚总统被枪决,没有像伊拉克的萨达姆被绞死。


Zimbabwe, in spite of everything Robert Mugabe visited upon it, is essentially a peaceable, gentle country. And despite all the immense crimes for which he was responsible, he is in some ways an intellectual, rather than a brutal thug along the lines of, say, Idi Amin.

而津巴布韦,尽管穆加贝也给该国带来了某些动荡,但基本上还是一个平和、波澜不惊的国家。而且,尽管有很多罪行穆加贝应该负责,但某种意义上来讲,穆加贝算是一位知识分子型领导人,不属于诸如乌干达的伊迪·阿明之类的残忍暴君之列。


He'll be remembered for the massacres in Matabeleland in the 1980s, for the farm invasions of the 1990s and later, and for the brutal repression of the opposition Movement for Democratic Change when it seemed on course to win the 2008 presidential election.

人们记起穆加贝,会想起1980年代的大屠杀,1990年代以及之后激进的土地改革,以及2008年总统大选期间针对有可能胜选的反对党“民主改变运动”的镇压。


The man who seems about to take his place, Emmerson Mnangagwa, was deeply involved in most of those crimes, yet people in Zimbabwe, like the outside world, will be so relieved to see Mr Mugabe go that they will be tempted to forget all that.

有望接替穆加贝担任总统的姆南加古瓦,在那些累累罪行中也都深深参与其中,不过,津巴布韦的人民,和外界一样,看到穆加贝下台,会感到轻松不少,因而也就会把那些也都淡忘掉。


They'll also forget the few unquestionably good things Robert Mugabe did. Zimbabwe, for instance, has an extraordinarily high literacy rate, because of him. But that's certainly not what he'll be remembered for.

毫无疑问,穆加贝也为津巴布韦做了些好事,不过,人们对此或许也会选择淡忘。例如,津巴布韦因为有了穆加贝的功劳,识字率非常高,不过,很可能,人们记起穆加贝时,肯定不会是因为这点功绩。


'Let him rest in his last days'

“让他安度晚年吧”

UK Prime Minister Theresa May said Mr Mugabe's resignation "provides Zimbabwe with an opportunity to forge a new path free of the oppression that characterised his rule".

英国首相梅姨表示,穆加贝的辞职“给津巴布韦提供了一个良好契机,以开拓一条新道路,再也不会有穆加贝统治时期针对异己进行的打压。”


She said that former colonial power Britain, "as Zimbabwe's oldest friend", will do all it can to support free and fair elections and the rebuilding of the Zimbabwean economy.

梅姨表示,曾殖民过津巴布韦的大国英国,会“作为津巴布韦最久的朋友”,尽其所有,支持津巴布韦进行自由、公平的选举,重建津巴布韦的经济。


Opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai told the BBC he hoped that Zimbabwe was on a "new trajectory" that would include free and fair elections. He said Mr Mugabe should be allowed to "go and rest for his last days".

反对派领导人茨万吉奈向BBC表示,他希望津巴布韦能走上一条“新道路”,选举自由、公正,并表示,穆加贝应该让他“去安度晚年”。


In other reaction:

各方对穆加贝辞职的反应:

The US Embassy in Harare, the capital, said it was a "historic moment" and congratulated Zimbabweans who "raised their voices and stated peacefully and clearly that the time for change was overdue"

美国驻津巴布韦首都哈拉雷大使馆表示,这是一个“历史性时刻”,对津巴布韦人民表示祝贺,津巴布韦人民“能发出自己的声音,用和平的方式清楚地宣告,早就是时候该改变了。”


South Africa's main opposition Democratic Alliance welcomed the move, saying Mr Mugabe had turned from "liberator to dictator"

南非主要反对党“民主联盟”对穆加贝辞职表示欢迎,称穆加贝已经从“民族解放者堕落到了独裁者”。


Prominent Zimbabwean opposition politician David Coltart tweeted: "We have removed a tyrant but not yet a tyranny"

津巴布韦反对派知名政界人士克尔塔特推特发文称,“我们已经搞掉了一个暴君,但还没搞掉整个暴政。”


Civil society group the Platform for Concerned Citizens called for dialogue between all political parties, which it said should lead to the formation of a national transitional authority

民间社团“热心市民平台”呼吁,不同政党之间进行对话,这样应该就能组件一个全国转型机构。


Robert Mugabe won elections during his 37 years in power, but over the past 15 years these were marred by violence against political opponents.

穆加贝在他37年的统治期间在大选中屡战屡胜,不过,过去的15年间,大选期间总会发生针对政治反对人士的暴力事件。


He presided over a deepening economic crisis in Zimbabwe, where people are on average 15% poorer now than they were in 1980.

穆加贝当政期间,津巴布韦经济危机严重恶化,目前,津巴布韦国民平均财富比1980年代下降了15%。


视频截图


However, Mr Mugabe was not forced out after decades in power by a popular mass movement but rather as a result of political splits within his Zanu-PF party.

不过,穆加贝统治几十年后之所以下台,不是因为群众运动,而是因为执政党内部政治分歧所导致。


The leader of the influential liberation war veterans - former allies of Mr Mugabe - said after the army takeover that Mr Mugabe was a "dictator", who "as he became old, surrendered his court to a gang of thieves around his wife".

解放战争老一代革命军人之前都支持穆加贝,而在军方接管了之后,却表示穆加贝是个“独裁者”,“随着年事已高,已把自己的权力交给了一群以他老婆为核心的窃贼。”


Yet despite huge demonstrations in the streets celebrating what seemed like his impending demise, Robert Mugabe had until now refused to step down.

不过,尽管街头发生了预示着穆加贝命运的大规模庆祝活动,但直到现在,穆加贝才放弃拒绝下台。


'It has happened'

“这一天终于到了”

His decision to finally resign sparked joy in the streets.

穆加贝最终决定辞职,在街头激起民众激情。


"We are just so happy that things are finally going to change," Togo Ndhlalambi, a hairdresser, told the AFP news agency.

一位理发师告诉美联社记者说,“我们是如此高兴,情况终于有变化了。”


"I am the happiest person under the sun right now, because I always believed that Mugabe was going to step down in my lifetime and it has happened," human rights activist Linda Masarira told the BBC.

一位人权活动人士向BBC记者表示,“现在,我是太阳底下最幸福的人,因为,我一直相信,穆加贝会在我有生之年下台,现在,这一天终于到了。”


"And now going forward it's time for the opposition to reorganise and ensure that we will have a government that cares for the people. And everyone has to be included."

“而且,现在一切都在向前发展,反对派也是时候该重振旗鼓了,并确保我们建立的政府会关心人民,不落下任何人。”


Robert Mugabe - Timeline of a political life

穆加贝政治生涯一览



1924: Born

1924:出生

1964: Imprisoned by Rhodesian government

1964:被当局判监

1980: Wins post-independence elections

1980:独立后赢得选举

1996: Marries Grace Marufu

1996:与格蕾丝结婚

2000: Loses referendum, pro-Mugabe militias invade white-owned farms and attack opposition supporters

2000:公投失败,亲穆加贝军人侵占了白人土地,袭击反对派支持者。

2008: Comes second in first round of elections to Morgan Tsvangirai who pulls out of run-off amid nationwide attacks on his supporters

2008:首轮选举中名列第二,落后于茨万吉奈,随之全国范围内激起针对茨万吉奈支持者的袭击,随之茨万吉奈退出了选举。

2009: Amid economic collapse, swears in Mr Tsvangirai as prime minister, who serves in uneasy government of national unity for four years

2009:面临国民经济崩溃,任命茨万吉奈为总理,茨万吉奈由此在问题累累的政府里担任了四年总理。

2017: Sacks long-time ally Vice-President Emmerson Mnangagwa, paving the way for his wife Grace to succeed him. Army intervenes and forces him to step down

2017:解除了长期政治伙伴副总统姆南加古瓦的职务,欲给他老婆格蕾丝接替自己铺平道路,随之,军方介入,迫使其下台。


往期精彩:


《中非关系》:津巴布韦有实无名“政变”,对中国影响几何?

大国博弈|《中美关系》:表面波澜不惊,深层波涛汹涌

排行榜|《国际关系重镇一览》:大国博弈,本质是智慧角力

红色记忆|《历史在荡漾》:百年记忆之“哈巴罗夫斯克篇”

中亚一瞥|《BBC》:中亚大国哈萨克斯坦要转换字母系统

陆克文谈中国|《全球脑库》:当中国领导世界。。。

普京大帝|《经济学人》:俄罗斯明年总统大选,毫无悬念

印尼一瞥|《裸体主义》:穆斯林国家印尼,裸体主义在涌动

天宫一号|《BBC》:已失去控制,降落时间、位置现难定

美国的大国工匠|《经济学人》:工匠代代有,精神永流传


注:

1:本文为原创,若发现不错,欢迎转发共享

2:想为小编原创加油,只需点击下方微信“赞赏”功能为原创打赏,苹果用户看不到微信赞赏功能,可通过下方微信支付向小编转账,感谢支持

3:英文源自BBC网站,图片源于网络,非商业用途

4:可将本公众号设为“置顶公众号”,第一时间收到最新消息。

5:若有任何方面的问题,可随时联系进行沟通

文章有问题?点此查看未经处理的缓存