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编辑部 NanoResearch

Nano Research

Review Article

Polymer nanoparticles as adjuvants in cancer immunotherapy

Shengxian Li1,2, Xiangru Feng1, Jixue Wang2, Liang He2, Chunxi Wang2, Jianxun Ding1,*, and Xuesi Chen1

1 Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

2 The First Hospital of Jilin University, China

Immunotherapy is one of the most promising strategies for cancer therapy. This review article describes advancements in polymer nanoparticle adjuvants in incorporating and presenting cancer antigens and enhancing antitumor immune response and predicts their prospects from bench to bedside.


Research Articles

Diphosphine-induced chiral propeller arrangement of gold nanoclusters for singlet oxygen photogeneration

Jiangwei Zhang1, Yang Zhou1,2, Kai Zheng1, Hadi Abroshan3, Douglas R. Kauffman4, Junliang Sun5, and Gao Li1,*

1 Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

3 Stanford University, USA

4 United States Department of Energy, USA

5 Peking University, China

Diphosphine ligands induce a propeller arrangement in a [Au13(dppe)5Cl2]Cl3 cluster, which can be employed as an efficient photosensitizer for singlet oxygen generation with a high quantum yield of ΦAu13 = 0.71.


Wearable strain sensing textile based on one-dimensional stretchable and weavable yarn sensors

Xiaoting Li, Haibo Hu*, Tao Hua*, Bingang Xu, and Shouxiang Jiang

The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China

A wearable strain sensing textile was fabricated based on one-dimensional stretchable and weavable yarn sensors. The fabric showed great potential for application to smart wearable functional electronics such as human sports tracker systems, calling devices for bedridden inpatients, and converters for speech-impaired people.


Stressed carbon nanotube devices for high tunability, high quality factor, single mode GHz resonators

Xinhe Wang1,4,5, Dong Zhu2, Xinhe Yang1,5, Long Yuan2, Haiou Li2, Jiangtao Wang1,5, Mo Chen1, Guangwei Deng2, Wenjie Liang3, Qunqing Li1,5, Shoushan Fan1,5, Guoping Guo2,*, and Kaili Jiang1,5,*

1 Tsinghua University, China

2 University of Science and Technology of China, China

3 Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

4 Beihang University, China

5 Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, China

Here, we show that by using a unique assembly technique, the pristine carbon nanotube is assembled into a self-aligned device geometry with preloaded internal stress. This results in a GHz resonator with excellent comprehensive performance.


Pyridine-induced interfacial structural transformation of tetraphenylethylene derivatives investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy

Xuan Peng1, Linxiu Cheng1, Xiaoyang Zhu1, Yanfang Geng1,*, Fengying Zhao2,3,*, Kandong Hu2, Xuan Guo2, Ke Deng1,*, and Qingdao Zeng1,*

1 National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, China

2 Jiangxi College of Applied Technology, China

3 China University of Geosciences, China

The respectively formed lamellar and quadrilateral structures of propeller-shaped tetraphenylethylene molecules 1,1,2,2-tetra(4- carboxyphenyl)ethylene (H4TCPE) and 4’,4’’’,4’’’ ’’,4’’’ ’’’ ’’-(ethene-1,1,2,2-tetrayl)tetrakis-([1,1’-biphenyl]-3-carboxylic acid) (H4ETTC) at the 1-heptanoic acid/HOPG interface show diverse responses to the introduction of three vinylpyridine derivatives (1,2-di-4-pyridylethene (DPE), 4,4’-((1E,1’E)-(2,5-dibutoxy-1,4- phenylene)bis(ethene-2,1-diyl))dipyridine (PEBP-C4), and 4,4’- ((1E,1’E)-(2,5-bis(octyloxy)-1,4-phenylene)bis(ethene-2,1-diyl))dipyridine (PEBP-C8)) owing to synergistic effects of various interactions.  


Organic-semiconductor: Polymer-electret blends for high-performance transistors

Peng Wei, Shengtao Li*, Dongfan Li, Han Yu, Xudong Wang, Congcong Xu, Yaodong Yang, Laju Bu*, and Guanghao Lu*

Xi’an Jiaotong University, China

To improve the performance and reduce the performance variation of organic field-effect transistors, a small-molecule organic- semiconductor is blended with an insulator polymer, and then post-treated by gate-stress. The gate-induced generation of an electret is thermally accelerated and can be achieved under moderate gate voltage in the presence of vertical phase separation.


In-situ fabrication of Mo6S6-nanowire-terminated edges in monolayer molybdenum disulfide

Wei Huang, Xiaowei Wang, Xujing Ji, Ze Zhang, and Chuanhong Jin*

Zhejiang University, China

Novel Mo6S6-nanowire-terminated edges were successfully fabricated via an in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) method.


Construction of bilayer PdSe2 on epitaxial graphene

En Li, Dongfei Wang, Peng Fan, Ruizi Zhang, Yu-Yang Zhang, Geng Li, Jinhai Mao, Yeliang Wang, Xiao Lin*, Shixuan Du, and Hong-Jun Gao*

Institute of Physics & University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

High-quality bilayer PdSe2 islands were fabricated on a graphene-SiC(0001) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). A bandgap of 1.15 ± 0.07 eV was revealed and a rigid bandgap shift of 0.2 eV was observed for PdSe2 layers grown on monolayer graphene as compared to those grown on bilayer graphene.


MoS2/C/C nanofiber with double-layer carbon coating for high cycling stability and rate capability in lithium-ion batteries

Hao Wu1, Chengyi Hou1, Guozhen Shen3, Tao Liu2, Yuanlong Shao2,*, Ru Xiao1,*, and Hongzhi Wang1

1 Donghua University, China

2 University of Cambridge, UK

3 Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

We designed a two-layer carbon-coated MoS2/carbon hybrid nanofiber material (MoS2/C/C fiber), by fabricating carbon-coated three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical MoS2 nanospheres and then embedding them into ~ 250 nm diameter electrospun fibers. The double-layer carbon coating plays a key role in preventing the aggregation of MoS2 flakes and restraining the MoS2 volume changes and consumption of sulfides and molybdenum during lithiation/delithiation.


Raman investigation of air-stable silicene nanosheets on an inert graphite surface

Paola Castrucci1,*, Filippo Fabbri2,*, Tiziano Delise1, Manuela Scarselli1, Matteo Salvato1, Sara Pascale3, Roberto Francini1, Isabelle Berbezier4, Christoph Lechner5, Fatme Jardali6, Holger Vach6,*, and Maurizio De Crescenzi1

1 Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”, Italy

2 Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Italy

3 c/o Italian Space Agency, Italy

4 Aix-Marseille Université, France

5 EDF R&D, France

6 Université Paris-Saclay, France

Identification of the Raman mode of air-stable low-buckled (with sp2 configuration) silicene nanosheets synthesized on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite located at 542.5 cm−1, perfectly reproduced by ab initio calculations. Scanning tunneling microscopy supports the growth of a low-buckled honeycomb structure.


Fabrication of zinc-based coordination polymer nanocubes and post-modification through copper decoration

Ngoc Minh Tran, Hien Duy Mai, and Hyojong Yoo*

Hallym University, Republic of Korea

Zinc-based coordination polymer nanocubes are controllably synthesized and post-modified by copper.


Composition-tuned oxidation levels of Pt–Re bimetallic nanoparticles for the etherification of allylic alcohols

Yuhao Wang1, Lindong Li1, Ke Wu1, Rui Si2, Lingdong Sun1,*, and Chunhua Yan1,*

1 Peking University, China

2 Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China 

In this article, we report that Pt–Re bimetallic nanoparticles with various compositions performed differently in the etherification of allylic alcohols, showing a strong correlation with the oxidation level of Re. The catalytically active sites were associated with ReOx and could be tuned by adjusting the Pt ratio.


In situ fabrication of 2D SnS2 nanosheets as a new electron transport layer for perovskite solar cells

Erling Zhao1, Liguo Gao1,*, Shuzhang Yang1, Likun Wang1, Junmei Cao1, and Tingli Ma2,*

1 Dalian University of Technology, China

2 Kyushu Institute of Technology, Japan

Two-dimensional (2D) SnS2 material has been in situ fabricated and used as electron transport layer (ETL) in perovskite solar cells (PSCs), where large interlayer spacing of SnS2 benefits the intercalation of perovskite particles, higher electronic conductivity leads to fast electron extraction speed.


Investigation of charge carrier depletion in freestanding nanowires by a multi-probe scanning tunneling microscope

Andreas Nägelein1,*, Matthias Steidl1, Stefan Korte2, Bert Voigtländer2, Werner Prost3, Peter Kleinschmidt1, and Thomas Hannappel1,*

1 Technische Universität Ilmenau, Germany

2 Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany

3 University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany

Advanced electrical characterization of free-standing, as-grown GaAs nanowires (NW) was demonstrated with high spatial resolution. Combining a multi-probe scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) in vacuo with state-of-the-art preparation, we revealed the conductivity profiles and impact of NW surface modifications on their electrical properties.


Towards high-mobility In2xGa2–2xO3 nanowire field-effect transistors

Ziyao Zhou1, Changyong Lan1,2, SenPo Yip1, Renjie Wei1, Dapan Li1, Lei Shu1, and Johnny C. Ho1,*

1 City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China

2 University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, China

Utilizing ambient-pressure chemical vapor deposition, highly crystalline, uniform, and thin In2xGa2–2xO3 nanowires (NWs) with controllable composition and diameter, down to 30 nm, are successfully prepared. When configured into a field-effect transistor, the optimized In1.8Ga0.2O3 NW exhibits significantly enhanced electron mobility, up to 750 cm2·V−1·s−1, as compared with that of pure In2O3 NW. Highly ordered NW parallel arrayed devices are also fabricated to demonstrate their potential for next-generation high-performance electronics, sensors, etc.


Superlubricity of epitaxial monolayer WS2 on graphene

Holger Büch1, Antonio Rossi1,2, Stiven Forti1, Domenica Convertino1,2, Valentina Tozzini2, and Camilla Coletti1,*

1 Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Italy

2 Istituto Nanoscienze – CNR and Scuola Normale Superiore, Italy

In this work, a combined experimental and theoretical study reveals superlubricity of monolayer tungsten disulfide on graphene, triggered by a scanning probe tip.


Tuning the structures of two-dimensional cuprous oxide confined on Au(111)

Qingfei Liu1,4, Nannan Han2,3, Shengbai Zhang3, Jijun Zhao2,*, Fan Yang1,*, and Xinhe Bao1,*

1 Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

2 Dalian University of Technology, China

3 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, USA

4 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

Surface herringbone ridges of Au(111) confine the atomic structures of two-dimensional cuprous oxide.


A fast synthetic strategy for high-quality atomically thin antimonene with ultrahigh sonication power

Wanzhen Lin1, Yaping Lian1, Guang Zeng2,*, Yanyan Chen1, Zhenhai Wen2,*, and Huanghao Yang1,*

1 Fuzhou University, China

2 Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

High-stability atomically thin antimonene (~ 0.5 nm) was prepared by liquid phase exfoliation of bulk β-antimony powder under an ultrahigh sonication power (850 W). Due to its ultrathin buckled honeycomb structure, the atomically thin antimonene delivers high specific capacity (860 mA·h·g–1), high rate capability, and good cycling stability as an anode of a sodium-ion battery.


Large-size niobium disulfide nanoflakes down to bilayers grown by sulfurization

Zhen Li, Wencao Yang, Yaroslav Losovyj*, Jun Chen, Enzhi Xu, Haoming Liu, Madilynn Werbianskyj, Herbert A. Fertig, Xingchen Ye, and Shixiong Zhang*

Indiana University, USA

Large-size NbS2 nanoflakes down to bilayers were synthesized via a novel sulfurization approach. The oxidation process is studied, revealing the importance of surface passivation for practical applications of NbS2 nanoflakes.


Sub-micrometer-scale chemical analysis by nanosecond-laser-induced tip-enhanced ablation and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry

Xiaoping Li, Zhisen Liang, Shudi Zhang, Tongtong Wang, and Wei Hang*

Xiamen University, China

Nanosecond laser-induced tip-enhanced ablation and ionization mass spectrometry technique demonstrates its capablility of achieving crater-size and mass spectrometry imaging resolution in sub-micrometer-scale.


Remote induction of in situ hydrogelation in a deep tissue, using an alternating magnetic field and superparamagnetic nanoparticles

Hwangjae Lee, Guru Karthikeyan Thirunavukkarasu, Semin Kim, and Jae Young Lee*

Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea

A remotely inducible hydrogelation system involving an alternating magnetic field and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles was successfully developed. This system achieves on-demand hydrogel formation that can be noninvasively induced by external stimulation at deep tissue sites.


Graphene oxide as an antimicrobial agent can extend the vase life of cut flowers

Yijia He1, Lichao Qian1, Xu Liu1, Ruirui Hu1, Meirong Huang1, Yule Liu1, Guoqiang Chen1, Dusan Losic2, and Hongwei Zhu1,*

1 Tsinghua University, China

2 The University of Adelaide, Australia

Graphene oxide was used as an antimicrobial agent to extend the vase life and improve the water relations of cut flowers.


Aggregation-induced emission luminogen-assisted stimulated emission depletion nanoscopy for super- resolution mitochondrial visualization in live cells

Dongyu Li1, Xiang Ni2, Xiaoyan Zhang2, Liwei Liu3, Junle Qu3,*, Dan Ding2,4,*, and Jun Qian1,*

1 Zhejiang University, China

2 Nankai University, China

3 Shenzhen University, China

4 Xuzhou Medical University, China

We synthesized TPA-T-CyP, which is a red&NIR-emitting luminogen with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) features that can spontaneously and specifically aggregate on mitochondria without encapsulation or surface modification, and can be used for dynamic mitochondrial stimulated emission depletion (STED) nanoscopy in live cells. The movement, fission, and fusion of mitochondria are clearly observable, with lateral spatial resolution of 74 nm.


High resolution, binder-free investigation of the intrinsic activity of immobilized NiFe LDH nanoparticles on etched carbon nanoelectrodes

Patrick Wilde1, Stefan Barwe1, Corina Andronescu1, Wolfgang Schuhmann1,*, and Edgar Ventosa1,2,*

1 Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany

2 IMDEA Energy, Spain

Nickel-iron layered double hydroxide nanoparticles were immobilized on etched carbon nanoelectrodes directly from a suspension.  The effect of electrochemical aging on the intrinsic activity of  the immobilized material was also investigated for the oxygen evolution reaction in alkaline media.


Experimental evidence of the thickness- and electric-field- dependent topological phase transitions in topological crystalline insulator SnTe(111) thin films

Yan Gong1, Kejing Zhu1, Zhe Li1, Yunyi Zang1, Xiao Feng1, Ding Zhang1,2, Canli Song1,2, Lili Wang1,2, Wei Li1,2,  Xi Chen1,2, Xu-Cun Ma1,2, Qi-Kun Xue1,2, Yong Xu1,2, and Ke He1,2,*

1 Tsinghua University, China

2 Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, China

The thickness- and electric-field-dependent topological phase transitions have been observed in topological crystalline insulator SnTe(111) thin films.


Transition-metal-doped NiSe2 nanosheets towards efficient hydrogen evolution reactions

Tongtong Wang1, Daqiang Gao1,*, Wen Xiao2, Pinxian Xi1, Desheng Xue1, and John Wang2,*

1 Lanzhou University, China

2 National University of Singapore, Singapore

We report systematic studies of the dependence of transition-metal doping on the activation of catalytic activity in NiSe2 by first principles calculations. Fe-doped NiSe2 porous nanosheets grown on carbon cloth are successfully developed and show significantly improved hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) efficiency.


Entrapping multifunctional dendritic nanoparticles into a hydrogel for local therapeutic delivery and synergetic immunochemotherapy

Lei Jiang1,2, Yang Ding1, Xialin Xue1, Sensen Zhou2, Cheng Li2, Xiaoke Zhang2, and Xiqun Jiang2,*

1 China Pharmaceutical University, China

2 Nanjing University, China

Multifunctional dendritic nanoparticles were incorporated into   a poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA-PEG-PLGA) triblock copolymers  thermosensitive injectable hydrogel matrix to construct a localized drug delivery system for combining chemotherapy and immunotherapy. 


Nano-fried-eggs: Structural, optical, and magnetic characterization of physically prepared iron-silver nanoparticles

Julien Ramade1, Nicolas Troc1, Olivier Boisron1, Michel Pellarin1, Marie-Ange Lebault1, Emmanuel Cottancin1, Vitor T. A. Oiko2, Rafael Cabreira Gomes2, Varlei Rodrigues2, and Matthias Hillenkamp1,2,*

1 Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, France

2 UNICAMP, Brazil

Iron-silver nanoparticles, fabricated via a physical technique, were thoroughly characterized with regard to their structural, plasmonic, and magnetic properties. The two elements segregated, and the particles showed both plasmonic and magnetic responses, allowing them to be studied from different comple-mentary angles.


Drug targeting through platelet membrane-coated nanoparticles for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

Yuwei He1, Ruixiang Li1, Jianming Liang1,2, Ying Zhu1,2, Shuya Zhang1, Zicong Zheng1, Jing Qin1, Zhiqing Pang1,*, and Jianxin Wang1,*

1 Fudan University, China

2 Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China

We developed platelet membrane-coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) to target drugs for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). By disguising them with a “uniform” comprised of a natural platelet membrane, these synthetic NPs were able to acquire biological functions similar to those of platelets.


Bandgap broadening at grain boundaries in single- layer MoS2

Dongfei Wang1, Hua Yu1, Lei Tao1, Wende Xiao2,*, Peng Fan1, Tingting Zhang1, Mengzhou Liao1, Wei Guo2, Dongxia Shi1, Shixuan Du1,*, Guangyu Zhang1,*, and Hongjun Gao1

1 Institute of Physics & University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

2 Beijing Institute of Technology, China

The bandgap at the grain boundaries in single-layer MoS2 is usually reduced relative to the bulk material owing to the emergence of defect states. In this study, we observed bandgap broadening at the grain boundaries in single-layer MoS2.



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