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缅甸一瞥|《昂山素季》:雄韬大略政治家,还是政客一枚?

2017-09-08 从余启 我与我们的世界 我与我们的世界

欢迎打开“我与我们的世界”,从此,让我们一起“纵览世界之风云变幻、洞察社会之脉搏律动、感受个体之生活命运、挖掘自然之点滴奥妙”。

我与我们的世界,既是一个“奋斗”的世界,也是一个“思考”的世界。奋而不思则罔,思而不奋则殆。这个世界,你大,它就大;你小,它就小。

欢迎通过上方公众号名称打开公众号“查看历史信息”来挖掘往期文章,因为,每期都能让你“走近”不一样的世界、带给你不一样的精彩

 

本期导读昂山素季,1945年6月19日生于缅甸仰光,缅甸政治家、外交家,现任缅甸国务资政和外交部部长,父亲为被缅甸人民尊称为国父的昂山将军。1990年其带领全国民主联盟赢得大选,但选举结果被军政府作废,其后21年间被军政府断断续续软禁于其寓所长达15年,2010年11月13日缅甸大选后获释。

 

1990年获得萨哈罗夫奖,翌年获得诺贝尔和平奖。2012年4月成功当选缅甸国会下议院议员,并于5月2日正式上任。2012年9月获美国国会颁发最高荣誉的国会金质奖章。2016年3月接任缅甸外交部、总统府事务部两个部的部长,4月同时出任新设置的国务资政一职,被外界视为相当于缅甸总理的职务,成为实际的领导人。

 

罗兴亚人(Rohingya people),缅甸若开邦阿拉干地区的一个穆斯林族群,集中在若开邦北部近孟加拉边界地区。关于罗兴亚人的起源,一说为自7至8世纪以来阿拉伯商人和波斯商人与孟加拉人、南亚的摩尔人等南亚各族居民以及缅甸土著不断融合形成的混血民族。另一说法指在英国殖民缅甸前,阿拉干地区的罗兴亚穆斯林人数有限,而罗兴亚人的人口激增是因为英国鼓励相邻孟加拉等地的穆斯林移民,以促进英国对缅甸的殖民统治。统计显示,从1872年到1911年,阿拉干地区的罗兴亚穆斯林人口从5.9万增加到了17.9万。

 

截至2013年,约有130万罗兴亚人生活在缅甸境内,但他们没有任何公民身份,更不被缅甸政府承认为缅甸居民,缅甸的佛教主流社会也普遍不接受他们的存在。按照联合国的说法,他们是世界上受到迫害最严重的少数民族之一。许多罗兴亚人被迫从缅甸逃离到邻国孟加拉国的贫民窟和难民营生活,并沿泰国-缅甸边境地区一路逃难,很多罗兴亚人更从海上逃至马来西亚和印度尼西亚避难。

 

 

 

Aung San Suu Kyi: The rise and fall ofAsia's Mandela

昂山素季:亚洲“曼德拉”的沉浮

 

 

For years she was the epitome of the peaceful protester, steadfast in her devotion to democracy in her homeland of Myanmar through non-violent means.

昂山素季,过去有段时间很多年,都一直是和平抗争的象征,坚定通过非暴力方式致力于缅甸的民主事业。

 

Aung San Suu Kyi was lauded on the global stage, awarded a Nobel Peace Prize, and praised for her refusal to incite violence while under house arrest for 15 years after winning a presidential election the ruling military refused to accept.

昂山素季因之获得颇高国际声誉,还获赠诺贝尔和平奖,在赢得大选却被军政府拒绝承认后遭软禁15年之久,依然拒绝诉诸暴力,因而受到国际赞誉。

 

Now protesters around the region are torching effigies of the democracy icon, furious at her failure to act while Myanmar's military lays waste to land held by the minority Rohingya Muslims, shooting civilians and sparking a mass exodus of nearly 125,000 people who have been denied citizenship in the Buddhist-dominated country.

当前,缅甸所在区域的当地抗议者们,正高举民主符号昂山素季的画像,表达对她面对缅甸军队驱逐罗兴亚人穆斯林、射杀平民、导致近125000在佛国缅甸难以获得公民身份的难民大量逃离而不作为的愤怒。

 

"These are mass killings and they're taking place right now and Aung San Suu Kyi's office is not only doing nothing to stop it -- in some ways they're throwing fuel on the fire," said Matthew Smith, founder of human rights groups Fortify Rights, who is currently at Kutupalong Refugee camp in Bangladesh, where many Rohingya have fled.

“这些都是大屠杀,现在就正发生,昂山素季办公室不仅什么也不做阻止这些行为,某种意义上,他们还火上浇油”,人权组织“巩固人权”创始人马修·史密斯这样说,史密斯目前就在有很多罗兴亚人难民的孟加拉库图帕隆难民营。

 

While it is the country's military that has cracked down on the Rohingya in this latest spasm of violence, Suu Kyi is considered the country's de-facto leader. Her official post is State Counsellor and she is said to be the president's confidante.

尽管缅甸最近这次针对罗兴亚人的暴力打压是由缅甸军方采取的行动,但昂山素季却是缅甸的实际领导人。昂山素季的官方职位是国务资政,据说也是缅甸总统的红颜知己。

 

 

Moral face of Myanmar

缅甸的道德门面

Her father General Aung San is revered as the country's founder after it gained independence from the British in 1948. And as a recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991 for being "an outstanding example of the power of the powerless," the expectation and pressure she faces to be the moral face of Myanmar is undeniable.

1948年脱离英国获得独立后,昂山素季的父亲昂山将军就被尊为缅甸国父。1991年,昂山素季因给“无权者树立了力量典范”而获得诺贝尔和平奖。人们对昂山素季成为缅甸国家道德门面的期望,让昂山素季倍感压力,但又不可推却。

 

Recent Nobel prize winner Malala Yousafzaihas called on her fellow laureate to condemn the "tragic and shameful treatment" of Myanmar's Rohingya population.

同是诺贝尔奖获得者的马拉拉就呼吁昂山素季,对缅甸罗兴亚人所遭受的“不幸和非人道对待”予以谴责。

 

译者注:

马拉拉·尤萨夫扎伊(1997年7月12日-):巴基斯坦普什图人,以争取女性教育而闻名的社会活动家,2014年获得诺贝尔和平奖,成为所有诺贝尔奖项中的最年轻获奖者。

 

 

Suu Kyi has ostensibly made it her life's work to fight for human rights and democracy, which has made her silence over the Rohingya crisis so grating for her supporters to see. But even before the most recent developments, Suu Kyi had displayed a disconcerting sensibility regarding Muslims in Myanmar.

据昂山素季自己说,已把为人权和民主而斗争作为了终身事业,而她对罗兴亚人所遭受的危机保持沉默,这让支持她的人很是难以接受。不过,近期事件发生前,关于缅甸穆斯林议题,昂山素季的表现就已让人感到不安。

 

Her attitude towards some of the ethnic groups which make up Myanmar's population was clear for anyone to see over years of media interviews.

多年来媒体采访中,昂山素季对缅甸人口中的某些少数民族的态度,已然非常清楚明了。

 

In a 2013 television interview with BBC News she disputed the characterization of the violence being perpetrated against the Rohingya at the time as ethnic cleansing. She was criticized then too, for not standing up for the persecuted minority, who were being kept in internment camps while Buddhist nationalists and firebrand monks spread anti-Muslim sentiment across the country.

2013年接受BBC采访时,昂山素季对罗兴亚人遭到种族清洗式的暴力的性质进行了辩护。当时,罗兴亚人正受迫害、遭拘禁,民族主义佛教徒及进行纵火行为的僧人,在缅甸全国煽动反穆斯林情绪,昂山素季对此视若无睹,没能站出来为遭受迫害的罗兴亚人说话,那时就遭到批评。

 

"This is what the world needs to understand, that the fear is not just on the side of the Muslims, but on the side of the Buddhists as well," she said. When journalist Mishal Husain argued that the violence had inordinately affected Muslims and caused tens of thousands to flee, Suu Kyi didn't mention Muslims at all in her answer.

昂山素季当时说,“国际社会需要明白,不仅穆斯林那边有恐惧,佛教徒这边也有恐惧”。记者米歇尔·侯赛因进一步追问,穆斯林遭受到的暴力却更为严重,并导致成千上万的穆斯林逃亡,而昂山素季在回应时却根本不再提穆斯林。

 

"I think there are many many Buddhists who have also left the country for various reasons and there are many Buddhists who are in refugee camps. This is the result of our sufferings. I think if you live under a dictatorship for many years, people don't learn to trust one another."

“据我了解,有很多、很多佛教徒也因种种原因离开了缅甸,在难民营,也有很多佛教徒,这是我们国家所遭受的灾难导致的后果。我觉得,如果你在独裁国家生活多年后,你也会发现,人与人之间,不会再信任彼此。”


According to a book published later, SuuKyi reportedly emerged from the interview remarking: "No one told me I was going to be interviewed by a Muslim."

后来出版的一本书透露,昂山素季据说在采访结束后提到,“没人告诉我,采访我的会是位穆斯林。”

 

 

Just a politician

只是政客一枚

Those who continue to defend Suu Kyi argue that even with the extremely influential post she now holds, the Nobel laureate and her civilian partners in government don't control the military and therefore cannot intervene in its campaigns, including the fighting raging in Rakhine State.

继续为昂山素季辩护的人士总说,即使昂山素季目前的职位非常有影响力,昂山素季和她在缅甸政府内的非军方政治伙伴对军方并没有管控能力,因此,也就干预不了军方的行动,包括罗兴亚人所在地区的猖狂行动。

 

On Saturday, British Foreign Minister Boris Johnson said Suu Kyi "faces huge challenges modernizing her country," and that it was "vital that she receives the support of the Burmese military, and that her attempts at peacemaking are not frustrated,"referring to Myanmar by its colonial-era name of Burma.

周六,英国外交大臣鲍里斯说,昂山素季“在缅甸国家现代化进程中面临很大挑战”,并表示,“昂山素季获得军方支持非常重要,昂山素季的和平调解努力会取得进展。”

 

"She and all in Burma have our full support in this," Johnson said.

鲍里斯还说,“在此方面,我们会给昂山素季和缅甸提供全力支持。”

 

In 2011, when she was censured for her unwillingness to criticize the military, her backers in the West argued that she couldn't have actually done very much since she was a member of the opposition and that speaking out might have undone any chance she might have had to pursue political power, something she and her party were focused on at the time. Coming down on the military in any way would have been a backward step for Myanmar's progress, they contended.

2011年昂山素季因不愿批评军方而遭到西方责难时,支持昂山素季的人士辩称,昂山素季作为在野党的成员,实际上做不了什么,若对军方直言不讳,可能会葬送她长期以来一直追求获得政治权力的所有机会,当时昂山素季和其领导的党派正努力获得政治权力,并坚称,以任何方式对军方带来不良影响,都可能导致缅甸民主进程倒退。

 

But in some Western corners at least, the tide may be turning. On September 1, the Washington Post Editorial Board pondered whether it was "too much to ask her to summon the inspiration to lead Burma away from the increasingly bitter and violent conflict with the Rohingya?"

不过,目前看来,至少某些西方人士,态度可能正在转变。9月1日,华盛顿邮报编辑委员会就在考虑,“若呼吁昂山素季让缅甸停止针对罗兴亚人的暴力冲突,是不是要求太高?”

 

"She might want to reread her Nobel text," the Board remarked, pointing to her words that summoned an original aim "to create a world free from the displaced, the homeless and the hopeless ... a world of which each and every corner is a true sanctuary where the inhabitants will have the freedom and the capacity to live in peace." The Board concluded: "This is not the world of the Rohingya in today's Burma."

“昂山素季或许需要重温下她的诺贝尔奖获奖感言”,华盛顿邮报编辑委员会这样评论到,意指昂山素季演讲稿中所庄严承诺的目标,“要建立一个没有人流离失所、没有人无家可归、没有人感到无望的世界……要建立一个所有居民都尽享自由、安居乐业、和平安宁的世界,一个所有角落都是所有居民真正的庇护所的世界”,华盛顿邮报编辑委员会最后结语说到,“现在的缅甸,对罗兴亚人来说,不是这样的世界。”

 

 

Suu Kyi's continued silence -- she hasn't spoken publicly since August 25, the day the fighting broke out -- stands in marked contrast to her previous calls for national harmony, particularly for the unity of all "the different peoples of Burma," as she'd described in her first public address in 1988.

昂山素季依然继续保持沉默,自8月25日暴力冲突发生后一直没公开露面发声,这与她之前于1988年首次公开演讲中对国家和谐,特别是“缅甸所有不同民族”大团结的呼吁,形成鲜明对比。

 

In an interview earlier this year with the BBC, reporter Fergal Keane asked her whether she thought that people in the West had misjudged or mischaracterized her, "expecting you to be this sort of amalgam of Mahatma Gandhi and Mother Theresa, for example, and actually maybe you're closer in your determination and steeliness to someone like [former British Prime Minister] Margaret Thatcher?"

今年早些时候BBC进行的一次采访中,记者弗加尔·基恩问昂山素季,是否觉得西方社会对她的定位不当或有误,“比如,总期望你能成为圣雄甘地或德兰修女,而实际上,从你的决心和意志角度讲,更像英国前首相撒切尔夫人?”

 

"Well no," Suu Kyi answered."I am just a politician. I am not quite like Margaret Thatcher, no, but on the other hand, I am no Mother Theresa either. I have never said that I was. Mahatma Gandhi actually, was a very astute politician."

昂山素季回答到,“嗯,不,我没这样觉得,我只是一个政界人士,我也不像撒切尔夫人,一点也不像,不过,另外,我也不是德兰修女,我从没说过我是。圣雄甘地的话,其实,是一个非常精明的政治人物。” 

 

往期精彩: 


日本一瞥|《英国媒体》:日本人口问题堪忧,彻底没救了

印度一瞥|《国际非政府组织报告》:童婚之毒,印度之痛

巴西一瞥|《里约热内卢》:是魅力之城,还是暴力之都?

西方社会一瞥|《BBC》:活在“水深火热”中的西方人民

独家|《CNN》:特朗普就职日收到奥巴马亲笔信全文曝光

一直在变|《婚姻制度》:制度源于历史,终将也消于历史

直播世界|《新兴产业》:小小直播摄像头,窥尽人性大世界

国际话语权|《唐奖》:中华文化圈的“诺贝尔奖”落座台湾

俄军在行动|《经济学人》:俄冷战后最大军演,剑指北约

全球遍览|《王子的故事》:童话里有王子,现实中也有 


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