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心理机制|《全球脑库》:特大枪击案犯是怎样“炼”成的?

2017-10-06 从余启 我与我们的世界 我与我们的世界

欢迎打开“我与我们的世界”,从此,让我们一起“纵览世界之风云变幻、洞察社会之脉搏律动、感受个体之生活命运、挖掘自然之点滴奥妙”。

我与我们的世界,既是一个“奋斗”的世界,也是一个“思考”的世界。奋而不思则罔,思而不奋则殆。这个世界,你大,它就大;你小,它就小。

欢迎通过上方公众号名称打开公众号“查看历史信息”来挖掘往期文章,因为,每期都能让你“走近”不一样的世界、带给你不一样的精彩


本期导读:在心理动力学理论中,本我、自我与超我是由精神分析学家弗洛伊德通过其结构理论所提出的人的精神所包括的三大部分。1923年,弗洛伊德提出这些概念,以解释意识和潜意识的形成和相互关系。“本我”(完全潜意识)代表欲望,受意识遏抑;“自我”(大部分有意识)负责处理现实世界的事情;“超我”(部分有意识)是良知或内在的道德判断。


本我、自我、超我构成人完整的人格,人的一切心理活动都可从它们之间的联系中得到合理解释,自我是永久存在的,而超我和本我又几乎是永久对立的,为了协调本我和超我之间的矛盾,自我需要进行调节。若个人承受的来自本我、超我和外界压力过大而产生焦虑时,自我就会帮助启动心理防御机制


心理防御机制(Self-defense Mechanism或Defense Mechanism),简称心理防御,是由弗洛伊德提出的心理学名词,主要指自我对本我的压抑,这种压抑是自我的一种全然潜意识的自我防御功能,是人类为了避免精神上的痛苦、紧张、焦虑、尴尬、罪恶感等心理,有意无意间使用的各种心理上的调整。


原始防御机制是指童年生活经历所形成的防御机制,保护自己可以说是原始防御机制的本质。心理防御机制本身越原始,那么其效果越差;离意识的逻辑方法越远,则越近似于变态心理。在生理上,心理防御机制被认为可以防止因各种心理打击而引起的生理疾病或心理障碍,过分或错误的应用心理防御机制可能带来心理疾病。


按照心理成熟度分类,心理防御机制可划分为:自恋心理防御机制、不成熟心理防御机制、神经性心理防御机制、成熟心理防御机制等。


按行为性质分类,心理防御机制可划分为:逃避性防御机制、自骗性防御机制、攻击性防御机制、代替性防御机制、建设性防御机制等。


其中,攻击性防御机制的主要两种方式包括转移(displacement)与投射(projection)。转移是指在一种情境下是危险的情感或行动,转移到另一个较为安全的情境下释放出来,通常是把对强者的情绪、欲望转移到弱者身上,如:对上级的愤怒和不满情绪,在家中对亲人发泄出来。


投射也称外向投射,是主观的将属于自身的一些不良的思绪、动机、欲望、或情感,赋予到他人或他物身上,推卸责任或把自己的过错归咎于他人,从而得到一种解脱,包括严重的偏见、因为猜疑而拒绝与人亲热、对外界危险过分警觉等。


精神分析学者认为,投射是个体自我对抗超我时,为减除内心罪恶感所使用的一种防卫方式。所谓“投射”是指把自己的性格、态度、动机或欲望,“投射”到别人身上。弗洛伊德于1894年提此概念,用以分析及了解“说者的内心世界”。


日常生活中,使用“投射”的情形也很普遍,亦是人际交往的一种方法。“投射”含有一种特殊的涵义,即个体将自己的某种罪恶念头或某种恶习,反向指斥别人有这种念头或恶习;或者把自己所不能接受的性格、特征、态度、意念和欲望转移到别人身上,指责别人这种性格的恶劣及批评别人这种态度和意念的不当。


投射能让我们利用别人作为自己的“代罪羔羊”,使我们逃避本该面对的责任。例如:一个在潜意识里对自己女秘书有非分之想的上司,却推说她在勾引他。又如,一个工作余暇以看色情影片和寻花问柳以排遣时间的人,每逢与人交谈则总是在批评同事闲谈时离不了色情与女人,令他十分厌恶。


此种机制可以保护个人内心得以安宁,但会影响个体对事情的正确观察和判断能力,并易造成人际关系上的问题,对个人缺乏建设性的功能,例如:有些不良少年,别人无意中看他一眼,他就动手打人,认为别人瞧不起他,这都是投射因素使然。患有妄想迫害症的病人,亦多采用此机制,他内心憎恨别人,却疑神疑鬼,无中生有地说别人要杀害他。


Inside the Mind of the Mass Shooter

走近特大枪击案犯的心理


Many details about Stephen Paddock’s reasons for opening fire on a Las Vegas concert last weekend have yet to be discerned. But so-called “lone wolf” mass shooters are not a new phenomenon, and past episodes can offer important clues about the thought processes and experiences that motivate them.

文章提要:上周末拉斯维加斯音乐会现场枪击事件嫌犯史蒂芬·帕多克作案动机的更多细节仍有待披露。不过,所谓的“独狼式”特大枪击案犯的出现,并不是一个新的社会现象,而且,以往的案例能为我们提供重要线索,能让我们对促动枪击案犯作案的思想过程和社会经历了解更多。


Last weekend, Stephen Paddock opened fire on a country music festival in Las Vegas, Nevada, from an overlooking hotel, killing at least 59 people and injuring more than 500 others. Paddock, a 64-year-old former accountant with no criminal record, was ultimately found in his hotel room, dead, with some 23 guns, including more than ten assault weapons. Police later found an additional 19 firearms, explosives, and several thousands of rounds of ammunition in Paddock’s home. What the authorities have not yet found, however, is a motive.

上周末,史蒂芬·帕多克从一家酒店高层向拉斯维加斯音乐会现场开枪扫射,导致至少59人死亡,另有500多人受伤。64岁的帕多克,曾做过会计师,也没犯罪记录,最后死在了酒店房间,房间里还有约23支枪,包括十多支攻击性枪支。警方随后在帕多克的家里还找到19支轻武器,一些爆炸物,以及数千盘子弹。不过,当局至今仍未发现的是,他的作案动机。


More details about Paddock’s mindset and objectives will probably come to light in the coming days. But so-called “lone wolf” mass shooters – individual perpetrators with no ties to any movement or ideology – are not a new phenomenon, and these episodes have offered important clues about the motivations and thought processes of mass shooters.

随着调查的进展,未来几天,关于帕多克心理状态和作案动机的更多细节,可能会逐渐浮出水面。不过,所谓的“独狼式”枪击案犯,即与任何运动或意识形态均无关联的个体性枪击案犯,并不是一个新的社会现象,而且,以往的案例也能提供重要线索,能让我们对枪击案犯的作案动机和心理过程有所了解。


Most mass shooters do not survive their own attacks; they either kill themselves or let police do the job. But those who have survived have shown some common features, with narcissistic personality disorder and paranoid schizophrenia being the two most frequent diagnoses. That was the case with Anders Breivik, the Norwegian far-right terrorist who, in 2011, detonated a van bomb that killed eight people, before shooting dead 69 participants in a youth summer camp. He remains in prison in Norway.

枪击案犯作案后一般也难逃死命,他们会自杀或被警方击毙。不过,那些逃过一命的枪击案犯都具有某些共同特征,自恋式人格障碍与偏执型精神分裂症是其中最常见的两个,挪威的极右翼恐怖分子安德斯·布雷维克就是这样。2011年安德斯引爆汽车炸弹,导致8人死亡,然后又向一个夏令营活动现场开枪扫射,导致69人遇难。目前,安德斯仍在挪威监狱服刑。


A look at behavior prior to attacks reinforces this view. In The Wiley Handbook of the Psychology of Mass Shootings, Grant Duwe, the director of research and evaluation for the Minnesota Department of Corrections, examined 160 cases of mass shootings in the United States between 1915 and 2013.

对案犯作案前的行为进行分析,会印证这个观点。明尼苏达州惩教署研究评估室主任格兰特·杜威在《特大枪击案心理威利手册》一书中,对1915至2013年间美国发生的160宗特大枪击案进行了分析研究。



Duwe found that 60% of the perpetrators had either been diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder or exhibited signs of serious mental disturbance before the attack. About one third had contact with mental-health professionals, who had diagnosed them, most commonly, with paranoid schizophrenia. The second most common diagnosis was depression.

杜威发现,其中,有60%的行凶者在作案之前不是曾被确诊患有精神疾病,就是曾表现过严重心理障碍症状。其中,约有三分之一的行凶者曾咨询过心理健康专业人员,而且大多都被确诊患有偏执型精神分裂症。其次最常见的为抑郁。


Yet, given that most people who suffer from these disorders are harmless to the public, these diagnoses do not tell the whole story. According to Duwe, the difference may lie partly in an acute sense of being persecuted – and an acute desire for revenge.

不过,鉴于大多有这方面精神困扰的人对社会公众不会带来伤害,但是,只确诊出来这些病症并不能说明问题的全部。根据杜威的分析研究,区别可能部分就在于,那是一种急性的精神困扰,还是一种急性的报复欲望。


This view is corroborated by Paul Mullen, an Australian forensic psychiatrist. Based on a detailed investigation of five mass murderers whom he personally examined, Mullen concluded that such killers struggle to reconcile their own grandiose ideas of themselves with an inability to succeed at work or in relationships. The only explanation, they decide, is that others are out to sabotage them.

澳大利亚法医精神病专家保罗·穆伦也持有这种观点。基于亲自处理的五宗特大杀人案的详细调查研究,穆伦认为,这些凶手都挣扎于浮夸宏大的自我想象,而现实中却在工作或人际关系方面屡屡失意,这样,他们就会觉得,唯一可行的解释就是,是他人坏了自己的事儿。


In fact, Mullen’s study revealed that the path to mass murder is rather stereotypical. All of Mullen’s subjects had been bullied or socially excluded as children. They were all suspicious and rigid, qualities that helped to deepen their isolation. They constantly blamed their problems on others, believing that their community had rejected them; they failed to consider that they themselves were too wearisome or self-centered.

其实,穆伦的研究也显示出,那些人变成凶手的路径,都几乎具有同样的模式。穆伦所研究的所有对象,都曾在孩童时期被恐吓胁迫过或被社会所排斥,他们也都多疑、固执,这进一步会加深他们的孤僻性。而他们一直把自己问题的责任推到他人身上,觉得他们所属的群体或社区排斥他们,而没能想到,他们自己太消极消沉、太以自我为中心。


Mullen’s subjects obsessively held grudges against anyone whom they viewed as part of the group or community that refused to accept them. They ruminated relentlessly over past humiliations, a habit that fueled resentment and, eventually, revenge fantasies, leading them to use mass murder to achieve infamy and to hurt those perceived to have hurt them – even if it meant a “welcome death” for themselves.

穆伦所研究的对象,对他们认为属于排斥自己的那些群体或社区的任何人,都抱有极深的怀恨,他们死死不忘过往的丢脸经历,这会增加他们的愤恨,最后会萌生报复意念,导致他们诉诸大开杀戒来展示恶行,伤害他们认为曾经伤害过自己的那些人,即使这样的举动也意味着他们自己也在“找死”。


Given this, there is usually a kind of warped logic to mass shooters’ choice of victims. In the case of school shootings, such as the Columbine High School massacre of 1999, that logic is clear: to punish those who have excluded the perpetrators socially. Likewise, workplace rampages are often triggered by a firing or layoff. But even in cases where the targets seem random, the logic usually emerges eventually, even if it is a matter of punishing an entire community or society.

由此看来,特大枪击案犯选择作案对象有着一种反常的逻辑。对于诸如1999年哥伦拜恩高中特大枪击事件的校园类枪击案,凶手的作案逻辑非常清楚:目的是惩罚那些排斥自己的那些人。与此相似,工作场合的疯狂报复通常是由被解雇或被停职而引起。不过,即使在作案目标看似随机的案例中,凶手的作案逻辑通常到最后也会显现出来,即使只是为了惩罚某个群体或社区,乃至整个社会。


In Paddock’s case, many questions obviously remain unanswered, beginning with why he chose that particular concert to attack. But the contours of his story are beginning to emerge. Reinforcing the loner trope, one neighbor said that the “weird” Paddock “kept to himself”; living next to him was “like living next to nothing.” It has also been revealed that in 2012, Paddock filed a negligence lawsuit against a Las Vegas hotel where he had fallen; litigiousness can be a hallmark of the resentful and paranoid.

就帕多克这个案件,目前很多谜题还有待揭开,首先就是他为什么选择那个特定的音乐会作为作案目标。不过,帕多克的种种经历,也开始逐渐显现。就孤僻这点,帕多克的邻居就表示,“行径怪异”的帕多克“总自己一个人,不与人来往”,与他为邻“就像是住的旁边什么都没有一样”。媒体也报道,2012年,帕多克曾因自己在拉斯维加斯一家酒店跌落摔伤而控诉该酒店疏忽大意之罪,好争论、好控诉这点,可以视为愤慨怀恨、妄想偏执的一个特征。


Duwe argues that, contrary to popular belief, such gunmen do not “just snap.” Though roughly two-thirds of mass public shooters experience a traumatic event immediately before carrying out the attack – usually the loss of a job or relationship – most spend weeks or even years deliberating and preparing to get their revenge. In Paddock’s case, such quiet planning may explain the armory found in his home and hotel room, which he rented several days prior to the attack.

杜威表示,与普罗大众所认为的不同,这类作案枪手不会“只是精神一时崩溃”。即使约有三分之二的特大枪击案犯在行动前没多久经历过令他感到痛苦的事情,通常是失去工作或人际关系破裂,但很多案犯都花费数周甚至是多年来为报复行动做筹划准备。帕多克这个案例中,他也悄悄做过诸如此类的筹划准备,这可以从他家中和酒店房间找到的大量武器枪支得到印证,而且,帕多克作案前的好几天就已入住那个酒店。


After the massacre, more than half of mass public shooters either commit suicide directly or provoke the police into killing them. This rate is nearly ten times higher than for homicide offenders in general. Does this reveal, Duwe asks, just how mentally plagued these perpetrators are? Perhaps they believe they can no longer bear the agony of life; once they have “settled the score” for the perceived slights that have produced it, there is no reason left to live.

多半特大枪击案犯作案后不是直接自杀就是等着警方击毙,这个比例比普通的过失杀人案犯要高出近十倍。杜威就表示,难道这不就显示出,此类案犯所遭受的精神折磨是有多严重?或许,此类案犯觉得,他们不再能够承受得了生活的痛苦,一旦他们已经“掂量好了”,觉得值得为他们所曾经遭受过的进行行动,那也就没什么动因能足以让他们停止行动了。


Mullen argues that the script for this particular type of suicide has become entrenched in modern culture, and continues to attract willing lead actors. If we are unable to use the knowledge we have gleaned from past experience to prevent them from taking the stage, they will continue to take aim at audiences.

穆伦认为,这种自杀模式所遵循的脚本已深植于当代文化中,并会继续吸引有意遵循此脚本进行演戏的“演员”。如果我们不能利用从过往经验中所获取的认知来防止他们登上舞台进行表演,那么他们将会继续把目标锁定在作为看客的普罗大众。


Contributors: Raj Persaud, a consultant psychiatrist in Harley Street, London; Adrian Furnham: Professor of Psychology at University College London.

作者简介:拉杰·佩尔绍德,伦敦哈利街精神医学咨询师;艾德里安·弗恩海姆,伦敦大学学院心理学教授。





《大师有话说》


我们之所以会发怒、嫉妒,主要是因为,我们总是以自我为中心,不会关照他人。以自我为中心,易让人产生忧虑,进而产生怒气,等怒气爆发,就会带来暴力。如果我们想要世界和平,我们就需要先内心平和,早该认真考虑考虑这个问题了。


往期精彩:


待解之谜|《拉斯维加斯枪击案》:枪手已确定,疑问仍重重

性本善|《拉斯维加斯枪击案》:温情于冷酷杀戮中默默涌动

面具人生|《认识自己》:戴有多少副面具,就有多少个人生

诺奖得主谈美国梦|《全球脑库》:美利坚合众国特色之梦

哈佛教授谈“伟大”|《全球脑库》:美国曾经因何而伟大,将来又会因何而伟大?

美国政治|《经济学人》:美国理应变更好,现在却变得更糟

《昼夜节律》:2017年诺贝尔生理医学奖给了“生物钟”

新知|《苍蝇难拍》:苍蝇的反应速度为啥子能完胜人类?

新知|《性福事关幸福》:性福该如何获取,幸福该如何抵达

诗图一家|《世界》:有人的世界,就是值得思考的世界


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