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印度社会一瞥|《经济学人》:爱情,在不同信仰之间挣扎

2017-10-02 从余启 我与我们的世界 我与我们的世界

欢迎打开“我与我们的世界”,从此,让我们一起“纵览世界之风云变幻、洞察社会之脉搏律动、感受个体之生活命运、挖掘自然之点滴奥妙”。

我与我们的世界,既是一个“奋斗”的世界,也是一个“思考”的世界。奋而不思则罔,思而不奋则殆。这个世界,你大,它就大;你小,它就小。

欢迎通过上方公众号名称打开公众号“查看历史信息”来挖掘往期文章,因为,每期都能让你“走近”不一样的世界、带给你不一样的精彩


本期导读:据百度百科介绍,爱情是人与人之间的强烈的依恋、亲近、向往,以及无私并且无所不尽其心的情感。爱情由情爱和性爱两个部分组成,情爱是爱情的灵魂,性爱是爱情的能量,情爱是性爱的先决条件,性爱是情爱的动力,只有如此才能达到至高无上的爱情境界。


据维基百科介绍,爱情是一种与爱相关的,被强烈吸引的一种具表现力、带甜附涩且快乐的情感。对于爱情,各方各界都有着不同的界定。马克思说的形而下的爱情是仅建立在物质和情感上的爱情。生理学上,爱是有性繁殖动物的意欲表现,就如饥饿或口渴。心理学上爱是社交与文化的表现。


信仰是指对一个人、事物、神、宗教的教条或教导、没有经验证据的观点(如强烈的政治信仰)抱有信心和信任。信仰是人对人生观、价值观和世界观等的选择和持有。信仰体现着人生价值、人生意义。信仰与所信仰的对象是否客观存在,没有必然联系。


信仰一般往往被认为是由外在因素所形成、受到父母、社会、宗教和传统所影响。信仰形成的过程必须是经过内在反应的,其中需透过个人的经历和对灵性的追寻,进而选择一种适合自己的信仰。信仰可以获得,可以被塑造,也可以被抛弃。


视频截图


Fighting love jihad in India

印度的“爱情圣战”反击战

Invading the bedroom

侵入卧室


Indians work themselves into a frenzy about interfaith marriages

印度人正在为不同信仰间的婚姻而发怒癫狂


THE older woman’s slaps come quick and hard, followed by a shrill, “Have you no shame?” The younger woman sits still, eyes downcast, holding a hesitant hand to her stinging cheek as if in disbelief. Captured earlier this month in the city of Aligarh, 140km south-east of the Indian capital, Delhi, this little act of violence was mild by the standards of videos that go viral across India’s 1.2bn mobile phones.

上面视频截图中那个年纪较大的妇女,巴掌一次次扇过去,又快又狠,扇过后,还厉声叱问:“你还要不要脸?”年纪较小的那位女孩,坐着一动不动,目光低垂,不知该放哪里的手,轻抬至针扎一样疼的脸颊,若有所思,貌似不敢相信发生在自己身上的一切。这个小视频本月早些时候拍摄于印度首都新德里东南140公里的小城阿里格尔,其中所展现的那点儿暴力,与印度全国12亿部手机上疯传的同类视频相比,完全是小巫见大巫。


Yet the scene was widely shared, and for compelling reasons. The two women were complete strangers. The older one happens to be Sangeeta Varshney, a prominent local member of India’s ruling party. The younger woman, who is Hindu, had been spotted sitting in a teahouse with a man who is Muslim. In a later interview on television, Ms Varshney explained that as a mother and a Hindu herself, she had a God-given right to hit the other woman. This was, she continued, a clear-cut case of “love jihad”.

不过,该视频还是获得了广泛传播,而之所以获得广泛传播的种种原因,令人震惊。视频中的两位女性,彼此完全不认识。年纪较大的那个,刚好是印度执政党在当地的一位重要成员,名叫桑吉塔·瓦尔什尼。年轻的那个,是位印度教教徒,被发现在茶馆与一位穆斯林男性坐着喝茶。事件发生后的电视采访中,瓦尔什尼女士解释说,作为一个母亲,同时作为一位印度教教徒,她拥有“神授之权”来教训那位,还说,很明显,这是“爱情圣战”的一个典型案例。


译者注:

圣战: Jihad 的意译,其音译为杰哈德或吉哈德,是伊斯兰教及穆斯林世界常用的宗教术语,出自阿拉伯语词根“jahada”,即“做出一切努力”或“竭力奋争”之意,字面的意思并非“神圣的战争”(Holy war),较准确的翻译应该是“斗争、争斗”或“奋斗、努力”。Jihad 是穆斯林的宗教义务,在“古兰经”中的惯用表达是“为神而挣扎”,所以翻译成“圣战”是一种延伸性解释。“圣战”字面意思是神圣的战争,通常被认为不同的组织、国家、集团甚至个人为标榜其战争的正当性和神圣性,将所从事的战争和事业称为“圣战”。目前“圣战”一词被人更多关注的领域是,宗教组织为驱逐外国人及异教徒并建立纯粹意义上的单一宗教国家而进行的活动。


Ms Varshney is far from alone in believing that the 80% of Indians who are Hindu face a concerted, predatory effort to entice their womenfolk away from the faith. One populist Hindu organisation’s helpline claims to have “rescued” 8,500 girls from “love jihad”. A website called Struggle for Hindu Existence carries endless titillating stories about Muslim youths luring Hindu maidens into wickedness. Repeated police investigations have failed to find evidence of any organised plan of conversion. Reporters have repeatedly exposed claims of “love jihad” as at best fevered fantasies and at worst, deliberate election-time inventions. Indian law erects no barriers to marriages between faiths, or against conversion by willing and informed consent. Yet the idea still sticks, even when the supposed “victims” dismiss it as nonsense.

远远不止仅有瓦尔什尼女士一人认为,有高达80%的印度教教徒,正面临女性同胞被一种有预谋、有攻势的行动所蛊惑远离自己的信仰。有个印度教民粹组织声称,其救助热线已从“爱情圣战”中“挽救”了8500个女孩。一个名叫“为印度教的生存而斗争”的网站上,满是关于穆斯林青年如何引诱印度教少女违背印度教信仰的挑拨人心的故事。警方也多次出动警力进行调查,最后也没发现什么证据能足以证明存在组织性改变信仰的事情。媒体记者也一再报道,有人声称存在“爱情圣战”,而这些,不是狂热教徒的臆想,就是选举期间有人故意进行捏造。印度的法律并没对不同信仰之间的婚姻进行禁止,也没禁止个人自愿改变宗教信仰。不过,这个问题依然在印度社会能激起波澜,即使连所谓的“受害者”也都认为荒谬至极。


In May, a court in the southern state of Kerala summarily annulled a five-month-old marriage on grounds that the wife, a convert to Islam, had disobeyed her parents and been lured into a potentially dangerous liaison with a Muslim man. Sensitivities in Kerala have been high since the discovery, last year, that several newly-wed Muslim couples had emigrated to fight for Islamic State. Still, it seemed bizarre for a judge to order this 24-year-old woman, who had converted a year before meeting her future husband, while studying at a medical institute, to return to her parents’ house. She has been held there ever since, under police guard and, say the few who have attempted to visit her, against her will. Even as her husband mounted a legal challenge to the divorce ruling, India’s supreme court in August ordered a special anti-terror unit to investigate his background.

今年五月,印度南部喀拉拉邦一家法院,仅基于一位转信伊斯兰的妻子违背父母意愿被一位穆斯林男性引诱而与之进入一场据说有潜在危险的婚姻,就草草宣判两人已有五个月之久的婚姻无效。去年,喀拉拉邦有几对新婚穆斯林夫妇潜出印度加入了伊斯兰国,自此这个问题的敏感性在该邦就一直处于高位。不过,法官宣判那位24岁的女性结束婚姻回到娘家,依然显得离奇怪异,毕竟,那位女性早在遇到她丈夫之前于一所医学院学习时就改变了宗教信仰。那位女性自判决后就被关押,还有警察看守,据试图去看望她的几位说,这不是她想要的,违背了她的意愿。她丈夫曾就离婚判决进行上诉,但印度最高法院八月份做出决定,让一个专门负责反恐的单位针对她丈夫的背景展开调查。


It is not only Muslims who are accused of preying on Hindu women. A 28-year-old Hindu woman filed charges against a yoga centre in Kerala earlier this month, alleging that she had been held there against her will for three weeks, abused and indoctrinated in an attempt to make her divorce her Christian husband. Her affidavit alleged that another 60 women had been held at the centre in similar circumstances.

并不只有穆斯林会被指责诱骗印度教女性。本月早些时候,一位28岁的印度教女性控诉喀拉拉邦一个瑜伽中心,说她曾被在那里强制困留长达三周,并遭到虐待、洗脑,试图让她与信仰基督教的丈夫离婚。该女性在宣誓书中还说,还有60多位女性曾被那个瑜伽中心困留,与她的情况类似。


And it is not just Hindus who harbour suspicions. Earlier this month a Buddhist organisation in Ladakh, a mountainous region on the borders of Tibet, issued a stark warning. All Muslims in the area would have to leave, or risk the consequences, unless Syed Murtaza Agha “returned” his wife, Stanzin Saldon, to her Buddhist family. For several days Muslim-owned shops in the region stayed shut, but the danger seems to have passed. Miss Saldon, a 30-year-old development consultant who says she converted to Islam five years ago, published a persuasively eloquent letter in Indian newspapers. It states bluntly that she married out of love and for no other reason, and feels insulted by the accusation that she might not be able to think for herself. The Buddhist elders, who had termed conversion a “wicked and depraved act”, have fallen silent.

而且,并不只有印度教教徒心有疑虑。本月早些时候,与中国西藏接壤的山区拉达克地区有一家佛教组织就发布了一份赤裸裸的警告,称该地区的所有穆斯林必须离开,否则后果自负,除非赛义德·穆尔塔扎·阿嘎把他的妻子斯坦金·塞尔顿“送回”她信仰佛教的娘家。连续多天,该地区穆斯林人所开的商店都关门停业,不过,目前来看,危险期已过。30岁的塞尔顿做市场咨询工作,她表示早在五年前就改信了伊斯兰,而且在印度的报纸上刊发了一篇极具说服力的信函。信函中说得很直白,她说是因爱而婚,没有其他原因,对她的指责让人觉得她没有独立思考的能力,感到被羞辱了一番。而那些视改变信仰为一种“邪恶腐化行为”的年长佛教徒们,然后也就都沉默不语,不再发声了。


Women often become a marker when sharper lines get drawn between communities,” says Charu Gupta, a historian at Delhi University. Efforts by the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) to build inter-caste alliances among Hindus have brought religious differences more to the fore, she believes. Still, says Ms Gupta, it is a shame to see state institutions and India’s courts take on the role of prejudiced patriarchs: “They have internalised a demonisation of the Muslim male, and see women as essentially foolish and immature.”

“当群体之间界限较为分明时,女性通常会成为界限的标志”,德里大学历史学者查鲁·古普塔解释说。古普塔认为,印度执政党人民党试图在不同种姓的印度教教徒之间建立联盟,此举已把宗教分野推上了前台。古普塔表示,印度的政府组织以及法院,已经扮演起了充满偏见色彩的部族长老的角色,“他们已把对男性穆斯林的妖魔化进行了内部化,并认为女性愚昧、幼稚”,看到所有这些,让人感到很是丢脸。


In Aligarh, police did not arrest Ms Varshney for assaulting a young woman. They did not bother the Hindu vigilantes who had hauled the couple out of a teahouse. But they charged the Muslim boyfriend with “lewd behaviour”. Only several days later, following a public outcry over the video clip and at the prompting of local women’s-rights groups, were charges pressed against Ms Varshney.

瓦尔什尼女士并没因羞辱殴打那位年轻女性而被阿里格尔警方批捕,因为当地警方也不想招惹把那两位年轻人从茶馆轰出去的那些印度教治安协警。但是,当地警方却以“淫荡猥亵行为”的罪名对那位穆斯林男性提出控诉。不过,随着针对那个小视频的公众舆论逐渐发酵,以及当地妇女权益团体的呼吁推动,几天之后,控诉开始转向了瓦尔什尼女士。


往期精彩:


中印关系|《经济学人》:中印互为近邻,会否唇齿相依?

遥望世界2050|《普华永道》:中国和印度,将领跑全球

民族主义|《关注印度》:印度的民族主义,源远且流长

印度一瞥|《国际非政府组织报告》:童婚之毒,印度之痛

中亚一瞥|《经济学人》:塔吉克斯坦的全国性“剃须”运动

缅甸一瞥|《昂山素季》:雄韬大略政治家,还是政客一枚?

巴西一瞥|《里约热内卢》:是魅力之城,还是暴力之都?

日本一瞥|《英国媒体》:日本人口问题堪忧,彻底没救了

新知|《性福事关幸福》:性福该如何获取,幸福该如何抵达

新知|《苍蝇难拍》:苍蝇的反应速度为啥子能完胜人类?


注:

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