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编辑部 NanoResearch

Nano Research

Review Article

Nanodendrites of platinum-group metals for electrocatalytic applications 

Nitin K. Chaudhari1, Jinwhan Joo1, Hyuk-bu Kwon1, Byeongyoon Kim1, Ho Young Kim2, Sang Hoon Joo2,*, and Kwangyeol Lee1,*

1 Korea University, Republic of Korea

2 Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Republic of Korea

This review addresses the recent developments in the synthesis and electrocatalytic applications of nanodendrites of Pt-group metals.


Research Articles

Versatile multiplexed super-resolution imaging of nanostructures by Quencher-Exchange-PAINT

Tobias Lutz1, Alexander H. Clowsley1, Ruisheng Lin1, Stefano Pagliara1, Lorenzo Di Michele2, and Christian Soeller1,*

1 University of Exeter, UK 

2 University of Cambridge, UK

Multiplexed optical super-resolution imaging based on DNA nanotechnology (Exchange-PAINT) was refined to enable shorter switching times and imaging in conventional fluorescence microscopy setups by blocking unwanted imager strands with complementary quencher strands.


Simultaneous growth of carbon nanotubes on inner/outer surfaces of porous polyhedra: Advanced sulfur hosts for lithium-sulfur batteries

Hengyi Lu1,2, Chao Zhang1, Youfang Zhang2, Yunpeng Huang2, Mingkai Liu3,*, and Tianxi Liu1,2,*

1 Donghua University, China

2 Fudan University, China

3 Jiangsu Normal University, China

Hollow cobalt-containing carbon polyhedra, with in situ grown N-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) on both inner and outer surfaces (NCCNT-Co), are designed, synthesized, and then applied as unique sulfur hosts for lithium-sulfur batteries.


Background-free latent fingerprint imaging based on nanocrystals with long-lived luminescence and pH-guided recognition

Zhiheng Li1, Qian Wang1, Yingqian Wang1, Qinqin Ma1, Jie Wang1, Zhihao Li1, Yingxue Li1, Xiaobo Lv1, Wei Wei2, Lang Chen1, and Quan Yuan1,*

1 Wuhan University, China

2 Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

A background-free, nondestructive, and easy-to-perform method has been developed for latent fingerprint imaging based on Zn2GeO4:Mn nanorods with long-lived luminescence and pH-guided recognition.


Self-immolative micellar drug delivery:The linker matters

Xuan Meng1, Min Gao1, Jian Deng1, Di Lu1, Aiping Fan1, Dan Ding2, Deling Kong2, Zheng Wang1, and Yanjun Zhao1,*

1 Tianjin University, China

2 Nankai University, China

The linker length can dramatically affect the drug release kinetics from redox-responsive polymer-drug conjugate micelles.


Tuning the morphology of chevron-type graphene nanoribbons by choice of annealing temperature

Yun Cao1, Jing Qi1, Yan-Fang Zhang1, Li Huang1, Qi Zheng1, Xiao Lin1, Zhihai Cheng2, Yu-Yang Zhang1,3, Xinliang Feng4,5,*, Shixuan Du1,*, Sokrates T. Pantelides1,3, and Hong-Jun Gao1

1 Institute of Physics & University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

2 Renmin University of China, China

3 Vanderbilt University, USA

4 Technische Universität Dresden, Germany

5 Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China

Using a precursor monomer containing sulfur atoms, we fabricated one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures on a Au(111) surface at different annealing temperatures through bottom-up methodology. The 1D nanostructures have distinct configurations, varying from sulfur-doped polymers to sulfur-doped chevron-type graphene nanoribbons (CGNRs) and finally, pristine graphene nanoribbons with specific edges of periodic five-member carbon rings.


A new sodium iron phosphate as a stable high-rate cathode material for sodium ion batteries

Xiaobo Zhu1, Takashi Mochiku2, Hiroki Fujii2, Kaibin Tang3, Yuxiang Hu1, Zhenguo Huang4, Bin Luo1, Kiyoshi Ozawa2, and Lianzhou Wang1,*

1 The University of Queensland, Australia

2 National Institute for Materials Science, Japan

3 University of Science and Technology of China, China

4 University of Technology Sydney, Australia

A new Na0.71Fe1.07PO4 structure is reported to exhibit an extremely small volume change (~ 1%) upon Na ion (de)intercalation. As a result, it shows exceptionally stable, high-rate performance when applied as a cathode material for sodium ion batteries.


Amine-assisted synthesis of FeS@N-C porous nanowires for highly reversible lithium storage

Xiujuan Wei, Xin Tan, Jiasheng Meng, Xuanpeng Wang, Ping Hu, Wei Yang, Shuangshuang Tan, Qinyou An*, and Liqiang Mai*

Wuhan University of Technology, China

Iron sulfide porous nanowires confined in an N-doped carbon matrix (FeS@N-C nanowires) are synthesized via a facile amine- assisted solvothermal reaction followed by an annealing process. With a shortened ion diffusion distance, a continuous electron transport pathway, and an excellent stress relaxation, the FeS@N-C nanowire electrode exhibits excellent cycling stability and superior rate capability in lithium-ion batteries.


E-beam manipulation of Si atoms on graphene edges with an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope

Ondrej Dyck1,*, Songkil Kim2, Sergei V. Kalinin1, and Stephen Jesse1

1 Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA

2 Pusan National University, Republic of Korea

In situ scanning transmission electron microscopy experiments were performed to manipulate Si atoms attached to graphene edges. We show how they may be removed from the edge, reattached, moved from the edge into the bulk, and the reverse process. We also demonstrate e-beam mediated graphene hole healing.


Intrinsic excitonic emission and valley Zeeman splitting in epitaxial MS2 (M = Mo and W) monolayers on hexagonal boron nitride

Chunxiao Cong1,*, Chenji Zou2, Bingchen Cao2, Lishu Wu2, Jingzhi Shang2,*, Haomin Wang3, Zhijun Qiu1,*, Laigui Hu1, Pengfei Tian1, Ran Liu1, and Ting Yu2,*

1 Fudan University, China

2 Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

3 Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

We developed a method for directly growing epitaxial WS2 and MoS2 monolayers on hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) flakes with a high yield and high optical quality; they exhibit better intrinsic light emission features than exfoliated monolayers from natural crystals. The valley Zeeman splitting of WS2 and MoS2 monolayers on hBN have been visualized and systematically investigated.


Aminosaccharide–gold nanoparticle assemblies as narrow-spectrum antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Xinglong Yang1,2,3, Lingmin Zhang1, and Xingyu Jiang1,3,*

1 National Center for NanoScience and Technology, China

2 University of Jinan, China

3 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China 

We report a series of narrow-spectrum antibacterial gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-based multivalent aminosaccharides that can kill methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) selectively.


A novel PMA/PEG-based composite polymer electrolyte for all-solid-state sodium ion batteries

Xuejing Zhang1, Xingchao Wang1,2, Shuang Liu1, Zhanliang Tao1,*, and Jun Chen1

1 Nankai University, China

2 Xinjiang University, China 

A novel polymer electrolyte system was used in Na‖CPE‖Na3V2(PO4)3 all-solid-state sodium ion batteries with excellent electrochemical performance.


Probing magnetic-proximity-effect enlarged valley splitting in monolayer WSe2 by photoluminescence

Chenji Zou1,2, Chunxiao Cong3,*, Jingzhi Shang2, Chuan Zhao4, Mustafa Eginligil5, Lishu Wu2, Yu Chen2, Hongbo Zhang2, Shun Feng2, Jing Zhang2, Hao Zeng4,*, Wei Huang1,5,*, and Ting Yu2,*

1 Northwestern Polytechnical University (NPU), China

2 Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

3 Fudan University, China

4 State University of New York, USA

5 Nanjing Tech University (NanjingTech), China

The enhanced valley splittings of A excitons and trions in monolayer WSe2 on the EuS substrate are carefully studied by circular-polarization-resolved magneto-photoluminescence measurements compared with that in monolayer WSe2 on the bare SiO2/Si substrate. The enhanced valley splitting which originates from magnetic proximity effect can be beneficial for future valleytronics.


Porphyrin-like Fe-N4 sites with sulfur adjustment on hierarchical porous carbon for different rate-determining steps in oxygen reduction reaction

Konglin Wu1,3, Xin Chen2, Shoujie Liu1,3, Yuan Pan1, Weng-Chon Cheong1, Wei Zhu1, Xing Cao1, Rongan Shen1, Wenxing Chen1, Jun Luo4, Wensheng Yan5, Lirong Zheng6, Zheng Chen1,*, Dingsheng Wang1, Qing Peng1, Chen Chen1,*, and Yadong Li1

1 Tsinghua University, China

2 University of Science and Technology Beijing, China

3 Anhui Normal University, China

4 Tianjin University of Technology, China

5 University of Science and Technology of China, China

6 Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, China

A coordination polymer strategy synthesized single-atom site Fe/N and S-codoped hierarchical porous carbon (Fe1/N,S-PC). As-obtained Fe1/N,S-PC exhibited superior oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) performance with a half-wave potential (E1/2, 0.904 V vs. RHE) that was better than that of commercial Pt/C (E1/2, 0.86 V vs. RHE) and many other nonprecious metal catalysts in alkaline medium.


Optimized nanoparticle-mediated delivery of CRISPR- Cas9 system for B cell intervention

Min Li1, Ya-Nan Fan1, Zhi-Yao Chen1, Ying-Li Luo1, Yu-Cai Wang1, Zhe-Xiong Lian2, Cong-Fei Xu2,*, and Jun Wang2,*

1 University of Science and Technology of China, China

2 South China University of Technology, China

We prepared a library of nanoparticles with different properties and screened the uptake of an optimized nanoparticle by B cells. We encapsulated the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 system into the optimized nanoparticle for arthritis treatment.


Enhanced efficiency in lead-free bismuth iodide with post treatment based on a hole-conductor-free perovskite solar cell

Jongmoon Shin1, Maengsuk Kim2, Sujeong Jung1, Chang Su Kim1, Jucheol Park3, Aeran Song4, Kwun-Bum Chung4, Sung-Ho Jin5,*, Jun Hee Lee2,*, and Myungkwan Song1,*

1 Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS), Republic of Korea

2 Ulsan National Institute of Science & Technology (UNIST), Republic of Korea

3 Future Strategy Research Institute, Republic of Korea

4 Dongguk University, Republic of Korea

5 Pusan National University, Republic of Korea

The ABi3I10 perovskite composite improved the surface morphology and the extended absorption spectrum. The perovskite solar cell (PSC)-based CsBi3I10 film exhibited a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.51% (Jsc ≈ 4.75 mA/cm2; Voc ≈ 0.46 V; FF ≈ 69.1%). Thus, the ABi3I10 perovskite material can be used as a novel material for Pb-free PSCs.


Molten-salt chemical exfoliation process for preparing two-dimensional mesoporous Si nanosheets as high-rate Li-storage anode

Ying Han, Jie Zhou, Tieqiang Li, Zheng Yi, Ning Lin*, and Yitai Qian*

University of Science and Technology of China, China 

A molten-salt chemical exfoliation methodology is developed for producing free-standing two-dimensional (2D) mesoporous Si nanosheets through deintercalation of CaSi2 in excess molten AlCl3 at 195 °C. Owing to their unique structure, the as-prepared Si nanosheets exhibit superior electrochemical characteristics for Li-ion batteries such as a high rate capacity and long cycling life.


Single-layer Rh nanosheets with ultrahigh peroxidase- like activity for colorimetric biosensing

Shuangfei Cai1, Wei Xiao1, Haohong Duan2, Xixi Liang3, Chen Wang1,*, Rong Yang1,*, and Yadong Li3

1 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

2 University of Oxford, UK

3 Tsinghua University, China 

Single-layer Rh nanosheets (NSs) demonstrated high efficiency  as peroxidase-mimic catalysts obeying typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a record-high catalytic rate constant (Kcat) of 4.45 × 105 s–1 to H2O2, two orders of magnitude higher than that of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). This could be ascribed to the unique single-layer nanostructure of the Rh NSs, with full exposure of surface-active Rh atoms.


Intelligent identification of two-dimensional nanostructures by machine-learning optical microscopy

Xiaoyang Lin1,*, Zhizhong Si1, Wenzhi Fu1, Jianlei Yang1, Side Guo1, Yuan Cao1, Jin Zhang2, Xinhe Wang1,2, Peng Liu2, Kaili Jiang2, and Weisheng Zhao1,*

1 Beihang University, China

2 Tsinghua University, China

The successful application of machine-learning strategy for the optical identification of two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures is reported. The machine-learning optical identification method endows optical microscopy with intelligent insight into the characteristic color information of 2D nanostructures in the optical photograph.


A topologically substituted boron nitride hybrid aerogel for highly selective CO2 uptake

R. Govindan Kutty1, Sivaramapanicker Sreejith2, Xianghua Kong3, Haiyong He1, Hong Wang1, Junhao Lin4, Kazu Suenaga4, Chwee Teck Lim2, Yanli Zhao1,*, Wei Ji3,*, and Zheng Liu1,*

1 Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

2 National University of Singapore, Singapore

3 Renmin University of China, China

4 National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Japan

A study which delineated the selective CO2 adsorption capability of boron nitride aerogel in a CO2/N2 mixture was conducted.


Tunable electrochemistry of gold-silver alloy nanoshells

Lorenzo Russo1,2, Victor Puntes1,3,4, and Arben Merkoçi1,4,*

1 CSIC and BIST, Campus UAB, Spain

2 Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Spain

3 Vall d’Hebron Institut de Recerca (VHIR), Spain

4 Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Spain 

The electrochemical properties of hollow AuAg alloy nanoshells (NSs) with finely tunable morphology, composition, and size are studied. Through their controlled corrosion the generation of a reproducible and tunable electrochemical signal is achieved. Remarkably, the underpotential deposition of Ag+ onto AuAg NSs surfaces is observed and its dependence on nanoparticle morphology, size, and elemental composition is studied, revealing a strong correlation with the relative amount of the two metals.


Nanoscopic imaging of oxidized graphene monolayer using tip-enhanced Raman scattering

Joseph M. Smolsky and Alexey V. Krasnoslobodtsev*

University of Nebraska at Omaha, USA

Oxidation tunes various properties of graphene by changing carbon from sp2 to sp3 type. Such a change is detectable with Raman spectroscopy. Tip-enhanced Raman scattering—a method that combines Raman spectroscopy with scanning probe microscopy can detect localized oxidation and induce oxidation sites on graphene with subnanometer spatial precision.


Particle-size-dependent upconversion luminescence of NaYF4: Yb, Er nanoparticles in organic solvents and water at different excitation power densities

Marco Kraft1, Christian Würth1, Verena Muhr2, Thomas Hirsch2, and Ute Resch-Genger1,*

1 Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Germany

2 University of Regensburg, Germany

The diminution of the luminescence of NaYF4: Yb, Er upconversion nanocrystals by common quenchers, such as C–H and O–H, is quantified for different particle sizes and excitation powers.


Integration of two-dimensional morphology and porous surfaces to boost methanol electrooxidation performances of PtAg alloy nanomaterials

Changshuai Shang1,2, Yaxiao Guo1,2, and Erkang Wang1,2,*

1 Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

PtAg porous nanosheets exhibit superior catalytic properties for methanol electrooxidation owing to their unique architecture and the introduction of Ag.


Plasmon-directed polymerization: Regulating polymer growth with light

Yunxia Wang1, Shuangshuang Wang1, Shunping Zhang1, Oren A. Scherman2, Jeremy J. Baumberg2, Tao Ding1,2,*, and Hongxing Xu1

1 Wuhan University, China

2 University of Cambridge, UK

Polymerization via plasmon-excited hot electrons enables controllable polymer growth with nanoscale precision. The polarization-dependent near-field profile around gold nanoparticles guides the polymer growth into anisotropic features with local selectivity, which significantly advances the control of polymer growth at nanoscale.


Exceptional co-catalyst free photocatalytic activities of B and Fe co-doped SrTiO3 for CO2 conversion and H2 evolution

Muhammad Humayun, Lei Xu, Ling Zhou, Zhiping Zheng, Qiuyun Fu, and Wei Luo*

Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China

Boron and Fe co-doped SrTiO3 (B, F-STO) as a novel photocatalyst has been successfully synthesized for the first time via a single-step sol-hydrothermal process; it exhibits exceptional co-catalyst free photocatalytic activities for CO2 conversion to CH4 and CO and H2O splitting to evolve H2 under UV–vis irradiation.


Electrochemically driven phenothiazine modification of carbon nanodots

Mónica Mediavilla1, Emiliano Martínez-Periñán1, Iria Bravo1,2, Tania García-Mendiola1,2, Mónica Revenga- Parra1,2, Félix Pariente1,2, and Encarnación Lorenzo1,2,*

1 Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain

2 Instituto Madrileño de Estudios Avanzados (IMDEA) Nanociencia, Spain

Electrografting of Azure A diazonium salt on C-nanodots immobilized on a gold electrode was studied. Elucidation of  the electrochemical mechanism by spectroelectrochemistry and application of modified C-nanodots as electrocatalysts towards the oxidation of hydrazine were investigated.


Highly fluorescent, photostable, and biocompatible silicon theranostic nanoprobes against Staphylococcus aureus infections

Xia Zhai, Bin Song, Binbin Chu, Yuanyuan Su, Houyu Wang*, and Yao He*

Soochow University, China

We herein present a silicon nanoparticle-based theranostic probe, superbly suitable for actively targeted, noninvasive, prolonged fluorescence imaging, and treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections.


Nanoporous magnesium

Ilya Vladimirovich Okulov1,2,*, Sviatlana V. Lamaka3, Takeshi Wada1, Kunio Yubuta1, Mikhail L. Zheludkevich3,4, Jörg Weissmüller2,5, Jürgen Markmann2,5, and Hidemi Kato1

1 Tohoku University, Japan

2 Institute of Materials Research, Materials Mechanics, Helmholtz- Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany

3 MagIC—Magnesium Innovation Centre, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany

4 University of Kiel, Germany

5 Hamburg University of Technology, Germany

In this study, we present freestanding nanoporous magnesium as a novel lightweight material with high potential for structural and functional applications. Our synthesis approach is very flexible and we demonstrate that versatile microstructures of the nanoporous magnesium—e.g., nanoscale bicontinuous network, hierarchical, and plate-like structures—can be designed upon the given needs.


Three-dimensional spongy framework as superlyophilic, strongly absorbing, and electrocatalytic polysulfide reservoir layer for high-rate and long-cycling lithium-sulfur batteries

Lianbo Ma1, Guoyin Zhu1, Wenjun Zhang1, Peiyang Zhao1, Yi Hu1, Yanrong Wang1, Lei Wang1, Renpeng Chen1, Tao Chen1, Zuoxiu Tie1, Jie Liu1,2, and Zhong Jin1,*

1 Nanjing University, China

2 Duke University, USA

A three-dimensional functional spongy framework is adopted as polysulfide reservoir layer in the configuration design of Li-S batteries. Li-S batteries assembled with a Ni foam/graphene/carbon nanotubes/MnO2 nanoflakes (NGCM) spongy framework show significantly enhanced electrochemical performance.



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